Tag: Write

Different Ways to Write CSS in React

We’re all familiar with the standard way of linking up a stylesheet to the <head> of an HTML doc, right? That’s just one of several ways we’re able to write CSS. But what does it look like to style things in a single-page application (SPA), say in a React project?

Turns out there are several ways to go about styling a React application. Some overlap with traditional styling, others not so much. But let’s count all the ways we can do it.

Importing external stylesheets

As the name suggests, React can import CSS files. The process is similar to how we link up CSS file in the HTML <head>:

  1. Create a new CSS file in your project directory.
  2. Write CSS.
  3. Import it into the React file.

Like this:

import "./style.css";

That usually goes at the top of the file where other imports happen:

import { React } from "react"; import "./Components/css/App.css"; function App() {   return (     <div className="main">     </div>   ); } export default App;

In this example, a CSS file is imported into an App.js from the /Components/css folder.

Write inline styles

You may be used to hearing that inline styling isn’t all that great for maintainability and whatnot, but there are definitely situations (here’s one!) where it makes sense. And maintainability is less of an issue in React, as the CSS often already sits inside the same file anyway.

This is a super simple example of inline styling in React:

<div className="main" style={{color:"red"}}>

A better approach, though, is to use objects:

  1. First, create an object that contains styles for different elements.
  2. Then add it to an element using the style attribute and then select the property to style.

Let’s see that in context:

import { React } from "react"; function App() {   const styles = {     main: {       backgroundColor: "#f1f1f1",       width: "100%",     },     inputText: {       padding: "10px",       color: "red",     },   };   return (     <div className="main" style={styles.main}>       <input type="text" style={styles.inputText}></input>     </div>   ); } export default App;

This example contains a styles object containing two more objects, one for the .main class and the other for a text input, which contain style rules similar to what we’d expect to see in an external stylesheet. Those objects are then applied to the style attribute of elements that are in the returned markup.

Note that curly brackets are used when referencing styles rather than the quotation marks we’d normally use in plain HTML.

Use CSS Modules

CSS Modules… what the heck happened to those, right? They have the benefit of locally scoped variables and can be used right alongside React. But what are they, again, exactly?

Quoting the repo’s documentation:

CSS Modules works by compiling individual CSS files into both CSS and data. The CSS output is normal, global CSS, which can be injected directly into the browser or concatenated together and written to a file for production use. The data is used to map the human-readable names you’ve used in the files to the globally-safe output CSS.

In simpler terms, CSS Modules allows us to use the same class name in multiple files without clashes since each class name is given a unique programmatic name. This is especially useful in larger applications. Every class name is scoped locally to the specific component in which it is being imported.

A CSS Module stylesheet is similar to a regular stylesheet, only with a different extension (e.g. styles.module.css). Here’s how they’re set up:

  1. Create a file with .module.css as the extension.
  2. Import that module into the React app (like we saw earlier)
  3. Add a className to an element or component and reference the particular style from the imported styles.

Super simple example:

/* styles.module.css */ .font {   color: #f00;   font-size: 20px; }  import { React } from "react"; import styles from "./styles.module.css"; function App() {   return (     <h1 className={styles.heading}>Hello World</h1>   ); } export default App;

Use styled-components

Have you used styled-components? It’s quite popular and allows you to build custom components using actual CSS in your JavaScript. A styled-component is basically a React component with — get ready for it — styles. Some of the features include unique class names, dynamic styling and better management of the CSS as each component has its own separate styles.

Install the styled-components npm package in the command line:

npm install styled-components

Next up, import it into the React app:

import styled from 'styled-components'

Create a component and assign a styled property to it. Note the use of template literals denoted by backticks in the Wrapper object:

import { React } from "react"; import styled from "styled-components"; function App() {   const Wrapper = styled.div`     width: 100%;     height: 100px;     background-color: red;     display: block;   `;   return <Wrapper />; } export default App;

The above Wrapper component will be rendered as a div that contains those styles.

Conditional styling

One of the advantages of styled-components is that the components themselves are functional, as in you can use props within the CSS. This opens the door up to conditional statements and changing styles based on a state or prop.

Here’s a demo showing that off:

Here, we are manipulating the div’s display property on the display state. This state is controlled by a button that toggles the div’s state when clicked. This, in turn, toggles between the styles of two different states.

In inline if statements, we use a ? instead of the usual if/else syntax. The else part is after the semicolon. And remember to always call or use the state after it has been initialized. In that last demo, for example, the state should be above the Wrapper component’s styles.

Happy React styling!

That’s a wrap, folks! We looked at a handful of different ways to write styles in a React application. And it’s not like one is any better than the rest; the approach you use depends on the situation, of course. Hopefully now you’ve got a good understanding of them and know that you have a bunch of tools in your React styling arsenal.


Different Ways to Write CSS in React originally published on CSS-Tricks. You should get the newsletter.

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Write HTML, the HTML Way (Not the XHTML Way)

You may not use XHTML (anymore), but when you write HTML, you may be more influenced by XHTML than you think. You are very likely writing HTML, the XHTML way.

What is the XHTML way of writing HTML, and what is the HTML way of writing HTML? Let’s have a look.

HTML, XHTML, HTML

In the 1990s, there was HTML. In the 2000s, there was XHTML. Then, in the 2010s, we switched back to HTML. That’s the simple story.

You can tell by the rough dates of the specifications, too: HTML “1” 1992, HTML 2.0 1995, HTML 3.2 1997, HTML 4.01 1999; XHTML 1.0 2000, XHTML 1.1 2001; “HTML5” 2007.

XHTML became popular when everyone believed XML and XML derivatives were the future. “XML all the things.” For HTML, this had a profound effect: The effect that we learned to write it the XHTML way.

The XHTML way of writing HTML

The XHTML way is well-documented, because XHTML 1.0 describes in great detail in its section on “Differences with HTML 4”:

  • Documents must be well-formed.
  • Element and attribute names must be in lower case.
  • For non-empty elements, end tags are required.
  • Attribute values must always be quoted.
  • Attribute minimization is not supported.
  • Empty elements need to be closed.
  • White space handling in attribute values is done according to XML.
  • Script and style elements need CDATA sections.
  • SGML exclusions are not possible.
  • The elements with id and name attributes, like a, applet, form, frame, iframe, img, and map, should only use id.
  • Attributes with pre-defined value sets are case-sensitive.
  • Entity references as hex values must be in lowercase.

Does this look familiar? With the exception of marking CDATA content, as well as dealing with SGML exclusions, you probably follow all of these rules. All of them.

Although XHTML is dead, many of these rules have never been questioned again. Some have even been elevated to “best practices” for HTML.

That is the XHTML way of writing HTML, and its lasting impact on the field.

The HTML way of writing HTML

One way of walking us back is to negate the rules imposed by XHTML. Let’s actually do this (without the SGML part, because HTML isn’t based on SGML anymore):

  • Documents may not be well-formed.
  • Element and attribute names may not be in lower case.
  • For non-empty elements, end tags are not always required.
  • Attribute values may not always be quoted.
  • Attribute minimization is supported.
  • Empty elements don’t need to be closed.
  • White space handling in attribute values isn’t done according to XML.
  • Script and style elements don’t need CDATA sections.
  • The elements with id and name attributes may not only use id.
  • Attributes with pre-defined value sets are not case-sensitive.
  • Entity references as hex values may not only be in lowercase.

Let’s remove the esoteric things; the things that don’t seem relevant. This includes XML whitespace handling, CDATA sections, doubling of name attribute values, the case of pre-defined value sets, and hexadecimal entity references:

  • Documents may not be well-formed.
  • Element and attribute names may not be in lowercase.
  • For non-empty elements, end tags are not always required.
  • Attribute values may not always be quoted.
  • Attribute minimization is supported.
  • Empty elements don’t need to be closed.

Peeling away from these rules, this looks a lot less like we’re working with XML, and more like working with HTML. But we’re not done yet.

“Documents may not be well-formed” suggests that it was fine if HTML code was invalid. It was fine for XHTML to point to wellformedness because of XML’s strict error handling. But while HTML documents work even when they contain severe syntax and wellformedness issues, it’s neither useful for the professional — nor our field — to use and abuse this resilience. (I’ve argued this case before in my article, “In Critical Defense of Frontend Development.”)

The HTML way would therefore not suggest “documents may not be well-formed.” It would also be clear that not only end, but also start tags aren’t always required. Rephrasing and reordering, this is the essence:

  • Start and end tags are not always required.
  • Empty elements don’t need to be closed.
  • Element and attribute names may be lower or upper case.
  • Attribute values may not always be quoted.
  • Attribute minimization is supported.

Examples

How does this look like in practice? For start and end tags, be aware that many tags are optional. A paragraph and a list, for example, are written like this in XHTML:

<p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit.</p> <ul>   <li>Praesent augue nisl</li>   <li>Lobortis nec bibendum ut</li>   <li>Dictum ac quam</li> </ul>

In HTML, however, you can write them using only this code (which is valid):

<p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. <ul>   <li>Praesent augue nisl   <li>Lobortis nec bibendum ut   <li>Dictum ac quam </ul>

Developers also learned to write void elements, like so:

<br />

This is something XHTML brought to HTML, but as the slash has no effect on void elements, you only need this:

<br>

In HTML, you can also just write everything in all caps:

<A HREF="https://css-tricks.com/">CSS-Tricks</A>

It looks like you’re yelling and you may not like it, but it’s okay to write it like this.

When you want to condense that link, HTML offers you the option to leave out certain quotes:

<A HREF=https://css-tricks.com/>CSS-Tricks</A>

As a rule of thumb, when the attribute value doesn’t contain a space or an equal sign, it’s usually fine to drop the quotes.

Finally, HTML–HTML — not XHTML–HTML — also allows to minimize attributes. That is, instead of marking an input element as required and read-only, like this:

<input type="text" required="required" readonly="readonly">

You can minimize the attributes:

<input type="text" required readonly>

If you’re not only taking advantage of the fact that the quotes aren’t needed, but that text is the default for the type attribute here (there are more such unneeded attribute–value combinations), you get an example that shows HTML in all its minimal beauty:

<input required readonly>

Write HTML, the HTML way

The above isn’t a representation of where HTML was in the 90s. HTML, back then, was loaded with <table> elements for layout, packed with presentational code, largely invalid (as it’s still today), with wildly varying user agent support. Yet it’s the essence of what we would have wanted to keep if XML and XHTML hadn’t come around.

If you’re open to a suggestion of what a more comprehensive, contemporary way of writing HTML could look like, I have one. (HTML is my main focus area, so I’m augmenting this by links to some of my articles.)

  1. Respect syntax and semantics.
  2. Use the options HTML gives you, as long as you do so consistently.
    • Remember that element and attribute names may be lowercase or uppercase.
  3. Keep use of HTML to the absolute minimum
    • Remember that presentational and behavioral markup is to be handled by CSS and JavaScript instead.
    • Remember that start and end tags are not always required.
    • Remember that empty elements don’t need to be closed.
    • Remember that some attributes have defaults that allow these attribute–value pairs to be omitted.
    • Remember that attribute values may not always be quoted.
    • Remember that attribute minimization is supported.

It’s not a coincidence that this resembles the three ground rules for HTML, that it works with the premise of a smaller payload also leading to faster sites, and that this follows the school of minimal web development. None of this is new — our field could merely decide to rediscover it. Tooling is available, too: html-minifier is probably the most established and able to handle all HTML optimizations.

You’ve learned HTML the XHTML way. HTML isn’t XHTML. Rediscover HTML, and help shape a new, modern way of writing HTML — which acknowledges, but isn’t necessarily based on XML.


Write HTML, the HTML Way (Not the XHTML Way) originally published on CSS-Tricks. You should get the newsletter.

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Want to Write a Hover Effect With Inline CSS? Use CSS Variables.

The other day I was working on a blog where each post has a custom color attached to it for a little dose of personality. The author gets to pick that color in the CMS when they’re writing the post. Just a super-light layer of art direction.

To make that color show up on the front end, I wrote the value right into an inline style attribute on the <article> element. My templates happened to be in Liquid, but this would look similar in other templating languages:

{% for post in posts %} <article style="background: {{post.custom_color}}">   <h1>{{post.title}}</h1>   {{content}} </article> {% endfor %}

No problem there. But then I thought, “Wouldn’t it be nice if the custom color only showed up when when hovering over the article card?” But you can’t write hover styles in a style attribute, right?

My first idea was to leave the style attribute in place and write CSS like this:

article {   background: lightgray !important; } article:hover {   /* Doesn't work! */   background: inherit; }

I can override the inline style by using !important, but there’s no way to undo that on hover.

Eventually, I decided I could use a style attribute to get the color value from the CMS, but instead of applying it right away, store it as a CSS variable:

<article style="--custom_color: {{post.custom_color}}">   <h1>{{post.title}}</h1>   {{content}} </article>

Then, that variable can be used to define the hover style in regular CSS:

article {   background: lightgray; } article:hover {   /* Works! */   background: var(--custom_color); }

Now that the color value is saved as a CSS variable, there are all kinds of other things we can do with it. For instance, we could make all links in the post appear in the custom color:

article a {   color: var(--custom_color); }

And because the variable is scoped to the <article> element, it won’t affect anything else on the page. We can even display multiple posts on the same page where each one renders in its own custom color.

Browser support for CSS variables is pretty deep, with the exception of Internet Explorer. Anyway, just a neat little trick that might come in handy if you find yourself working with light art direction in a CMS, as well as a reminder of just how awesome CSS variables can be.


The post Want to Write a Hover Effect With Inline CSS? Use CSS Variables. appeared first on CSS-Tricks.

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How to Write Loops with Preprocessors

Loops are one of those features that you don’t need every day. But when you do, it’s awfully nice that preprocessors can do it because native HTML and CSS cannot.

Sass (SCSS)

for Loop

while Loop

each Loop

Less

for Loop

while Loop

(That’s what the above is. The when clause could be thought of exactly as while.)

each Loop

Stylus

for Loop

while Loop

Only for loops in Stylus.

each Loop

The for loop actually behaves more like an each loop, so here’s a more obvious each loop example:

Pug

for Loop

while Loop

each Loop

Haml

for Loop

while Loop

each Loop

Slim

for Loop

while Loop

each Loop


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Let’s Say You Were Going to Write a Blog Post About Dark Mode

This is not that blog post. I’m saying let’s say you were.

This is not a knock any other blog posts out there about Dark Mode. There are lots of good ones, and I’m a fan of any information-sharing blog post. This is more of a thought exercise on what I think it would take to write a really great blog post on this subject.

  • You’d explain what Dark Mode is. You wouldn’t dwell on it though, because chances are are people reading a blog post like this already essentially know what it is.
  • You’d definitely have a nice demo. Probably multiple demos. One that is very basic so the most important lines of code can be easily seen. Perhaps something that swaps out background-color and color. The other demo(s) will deal with more complex and real-world scenarios. What do you do with images and background images? SVG strokes and fills? Buttons? Borders? Shadows? These are rare things that sites have, so anyone looking at designing a Dark Mode UI will come across them.
  • You’d deal with the fact that Dark Mode is a choice that can happen at the operating system level itself. Fortunately, we can detect that in CSS, so you’ll have to cover how.
  • JavaScript might need to know about the operating system choice as well. Perhaps because some styling is happening at the JavaScript level, but also because of this next thing.
  • Dark Mode could (should?) be a choice on the website as well. That servers cases where, on this particular site, a user prefers a choice opposite of what their operating system preference is.
  • Building a theme toggle isn’t a small job. If your site has authentication, that choice should probably be remembered at the account level. If it doesn’t, the choice should be remembered in some other way. One possibility is localStorage, but that can have problems, like the fact that CSS is generally applied to a page before JavaScript executes, meaning you’re facing a “flash of incorrect theme” situation. You might be needing to deal with cookies so that you can send theme-specific CSS on each page load.
  • Your blog post would include real-world examples of people already doing this. That way, you can investigate how they’ve done it and evaluate how successful they were. Perhaps you can reach out to them for comment as well.
  • You’ll be aware of other writing on this subject. That should not dissuade you from writing about the subject yourself, but a blog post that sounds like you’re the first and only person writing about a subject when you clearly aren’t has an awkward tone to it that doesn’t come across well. Not only can you learn from others’ writing, but you can also pull from it and potentially take it further.
  • Since you’ll be covering browser technology, you’ll be covering the support of that technology across the browser landscape. Are there notable exceptions in support? Is that support coming? Have you researched what browsers themselves are saying about the technology?
  • There are accessibility implications abound. Dark Mode itself can be considered an accessibility feature, and there are tangential accessibility issues here too, like how the toggle works, how mode changes are announced, and a whole new set of color contrasts to calculate and get right. A blog post is a great opportunity to talk about all that. Have you researched it? Have you talked to any people who have special needs around these features? Any experts? Have you read what accessibility people are saying about Dark Mode?

That was all about Dark Mode, but I bet you could imagine how considering all these points could benefit any blog post covering a technical concept.

The post Let’s Say You Were Going to Write a Blog Post About Dark Mode appeared first on CSS-Tricks.

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Using Cypress to Write Tests for a React Application

End-to-end tests are written to assert the flow of an application from start to finish. Instead of handling the tests yourself — you know, manually clicking all over the application — you can write a test that runs as you build the application. That’s what we call continuous integration and it’s a beautiful thing. Write some code, save it, and let tooling do the dirty work of making sure it doesn’t break anything.

>Cypress is just one end-to-end testing framework that does all that clicking work for us and that’s what we’re going to look at in this post. It’s really for any modern JavaScript library, but we’re going to integrate it with React in the examples.

Let’s set up an app to test

In this tutorial, we will write tests to cover a todo application I’ve built. You can clone the repository to follow along as we plug it into Cypress.

git clone git@github.com:kinsomicrote/cypress-react-tutorial.git

Navigate into the application, and install the dependencies:

cd cypress-react-tutorial yarn install

Cypress isn’t part of the dependencies, but you can install it by running this:

yarn add cypress --dev

Now, run this command to open Cypress:

node_modules/.bin/cypress open

Typing that command to the terminal over and over can get exhausting, but you can add this script to the package.json file in the project root:

"cypress": "cypress open"

Now, all you have to do is do npm run cypress once and Cypress will be standing by at all times. To have a feel of what the application we’ll be testing looks like, you can start the React application by running yarn start.

We will start by writing a test to confirm that Cypress works. In the cypress/integration folder, create a new file called init.spec.js. The test asserts that true is equal to true. We only need it to confirm that’s working to ensure that Cypress is up and running for the entire application.

describe('Cypress', () => {   it('is working', () => {     expect(true).to.equal(true)   }) })

You should have a list of tests open. Go there and select init.spec.js.

That should cause the test to run and pop up a screen that shows the test passing.

While we’re still in init.spec.js, let’s add a test to assert that we can visit the app by hitting http://localhost:3000 in the browser. This’ll make sure the app itself is running.

it('visits the app', () => {   cy.visit('http://localhost:3000') })

We call the method visit() and we pass it the URL of the app. We have access to a global object called cy for calling the methods available to us on Cypress.

To avoid having to write the URL time and again, we can set a base URL that can be used throughout the tests we write. Open the cypress.json file in the home directory of the application and add define the URL there:

{   "baseUrl": "http://localhost:3000" }

You can change the test block to look like this:

it('visits the app', () => {   cy.visit('/') })

…and the test should continue to pass. 🤞

Testing form controls and inputs

The test we’ll be writing will cover how users interact with the todo application. For example, we want to ensure the input is in focus when the app loads so users can start entering tasks immediately. We also want to ensure that there’s a default task in there so the list is not empty by default. When there are no tasks, we want to show text that tells the user as much.

To get started, go ahead and create a new file in the integration folder called form.spec.js. The name of the file isn’t all that important. We’re prepending “form” because what we’re testing is ultimately a form input. You may want to call it something different depending on how you plan on organizing tests.

We’re going to add a describe block to the file:

describe('Form', () => {   beforeEach(() => {     cy.visit('/')   })    it('it focuses the input', () => {     cy.focused().should('have.class', 'form-control')   }) })

The beforeEach block is used to avoid unnecessary repetition. For each block of test, we need to visit the application. It would be redundant to repeat that line each time beforeEach ensures Cypress visits the application in each case.

For the test, let’s check that the DOM element in focus when application first loads has a class of form-control. If you check the source file, you will see that the input element has a class called form-control set to it, and we have autoFocus as one of the element attributes:

<input   type="text"   autoFocus   value={this.state.item}   onChange={this.handleInputChange}   placeholder="Enter a task"   className="form-control" />

When you save that, go back to the test screen and select form.spec.js to run the test.

The next thing we’ll do is test whether a user can successfully enter a value into the input field.

it('accepts input', () => {   const input = "Learn about Cypress"   cy.get('.form-control')     .type(input)     .should('have.value', input) })

We’ve added some text (“Learn about Cypress”) to the input. Then we make use of cy.get to obtain the DOM element with the form-control class name. We could also do something like cy.get('input') and get the same result. After getting the element, cy.type() is used to enter the value we assigned to the input, then we assert that the DOM element with class form-control has a value that matches the value of input.

In other words:

Does the input have a class of form-control and does it contain Learn About Cypress in it?

Our application should also have two todos that have been created by default when the app runs. It’s important we have a test that checks that they are indeed listed.

What do we want? In our code, we are making use of the list item (<li>) element to display tasks as items in a list. Since we have two items listed by default, it means that the list should have a length of two at start. So, the test will look something like this:

it('displays list of todo', () => {   cy.get('li')     .should('have.length', 2) })

Oh! And what would this app be if a user was unable to add a new task to the list? We’d better test that as well.

it('adds a new todo', () => {   const input = "Learn about cypress"   cy.get('.form-control')     .type(input)     .type('{enter}')     .get('li')     .should('have.length', 3) })

This looks similar to what we wrote in the last two tests. We obtain the input and simulate typing a value into it. Then, we simulate submitting a task that should update the state of the application, thereby increasing the length from 2 to 3. So, really, we can build off of what we already have!

Changing the value from three to two will cause the test to fail — that’s what we’d expect because the list should have two tasks by default and submitting once should produce a total of three.

You might be wondering what would happen if the user deletes either (or both) of the default tasks before attempting to submit a new task. Well, we could write a test for that as well, but we’re not making that assumption in this example since we only want to confirm that tasks can be submitted. This is an easy way for us to test the basic submitting functionality as we develop and we can account for advanced/edge cases later.

The last feature we need to test is the deleting tasks. First, we want to delete one of the default task items and then see if there is one remaining once the deletion happens. It’s the same sort of deal as before, but we should expect one item left in the list instead of the three we expected when adding a new task to the list.

it('deletes a todo', () => {   cy.get('li')     .first()     .find('.btn-danger')     .click()     .get('li')     .should('have.length', 1) })

OK, so what happens if we delete both of the default tasks in the list and the list is completely empty? Let’s say we want to display this text when no more items are in the list: “All of your tasks are complete. Nicely done!”

This isn’t too different from what we have done before. You can try it out first then come back to see the code for it.

it.only('deletes all todo', () => {   cy.get('li')     .first()     .find('.btn-danger')     .click()     .get('li')     .first()     .find('.btn-danger')     .click()     .get('.no-task')     .should('have.text', 'All of your tasks are complete. Nicely done!') })

Both tests look similar: we get the list item element, target the first one, and make use of cy.find() to look for the DOM element with a btn-danger class name (which, again, is a totally arbitrary class name for the delete button in this example app). We simulate a click event on the element to delete the task item.

I’m checking for “No task!” in this particular test.

Testing network requests

Network requests are kind of a big deal because that’s often the source of data used in an application. Say we have a component in our app that makes a request to the server to obtain data which will be displayed to user. Let’s say the component markup looks like this:

class App extends React.Component {   state = {     isLoading: true,     users: [],     error: null   };   fetchUsers() {     fetch(`https://jsonplaceholder.typicode.com/users`)       .then(response => response.json())       .then(data =>         this.setState({           users: data,           isLoading: false,         })       )       .catch(error => this.setState({ error, isLoading: false }));   }   componentDidMount() {     this.fetchUsers();   }   render() {     const { isLoading, users, error } = this.state;     return (       <React.Fragment>         <h1>Random User</h1>         {error ? <p>{error.message}</p> : null}         {!isLoading ? (           users.map(user => {             const { username, name, email } = user;             return (               <div key={username}>                 <p>Name: {name}</p>                 <p>Email Address: {email}</p>                 <hr />               </div>             );           })         ) : (           <h3>Loading...</h3>         )}       </React.Fragment>     );   } }

Here, we are making use of the JSON Placeholder API as an example. We can have a test like this to test the response we get from the server:

describe('Request', () => {   it('displays random users from API', () => {     cy.request('https://jsonplaceholder.typicode.com/users')       .should((response) => {         expect(response.status).to.eq(200)         expect(response.body).to.have.length(10)         expect(response).to.have.property('headers')         expect(response).to.have.property('duration')       })   }) })

The benefit of testing the server (as opposed to stubbing it) is that we are certain the response we get is the same as that which a user will get. To learn more about network requests and how you can stub network requests, see this page in the Cypress documentation.

Running tests from the command line

Cypress tests can run from the terminal without the provided UI:

./node_modules/.bin/cypress run

…or

npx cypress run

Let’s run the form tests we wrote:

npx cypress run --record --spec "cypress/integration/form.spec.js"

Terminal should output the results right there with a summary of what was tested.

There’s a lot more about using Cypress with the command line in the documentation.

That’s a wrap!

Tests are something that either gets people excited or scared, depending on who you talk to. Hopefully what we’ve looked at in this post gets everyone excited about implementing tests in an application and shows how relatively straightforward it can be. Cypress is an excellent tool and one I’ve found myself reaching for in my own work, but there are others as well. Regardless of what tool you use (and how you feel about tests), hopefully you see the benefits of testing and are more compelled to give them a try.

Related resources

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CSS Houdini Could Change the Way We Write and Manage CSS

CSS Houdini may be the most exciting development in CSS. Houdini is comprised of a number of separate APIs, each shipping to browsers separately, and some that have already shipped (here’s the browser support). The Paint API is one of them. I’m very excited about it and recently started to think about how I can use it in my work.

One way I’ve been able to do that is to use it as a way to avoid reinventing the wheel. We’ll go over that in this post while comparing it with methods we currently use in JavaScript and CSS. (I won’t dig into how to write CSS Houdini because there are great articles like this, this and this.)

Houdini brings modularity and configurations to CSS

The way CSS Houdini works brings two advantages: modularity and configurability. Both are common ways to make our lives as developers easier. We see these concepts often in the JavaScript world, but less-so with CSS world… until now.

Here’s a table the workflows we have for some use cases, comparing traditional CSS with using Houdini. I also added JavaScript for further comparison. You can see CSS Houdini allows us to use CSS more productively, similar to how the JavaScript world had evolved into components.

Traditional CSS CSS Houdini JavaScript
When we need a commonly used snippets Write it from scratch or copy-paste from somewhere. Import a worklet for it. Import a JS library.
Customize the snippet for the use case Manually tweak the value in CSS. Edit custom properties that the worklet exposes. Edit configs that the library provides.
Sharing code Share code for the raw styles, with comments on how to tweak each piece. Share the worklet (in the future, to a package management service) and document custom properties. Share the library to a package management service (like npm) and document how to use and configure it.

Modularity

With Houdini, you can import a worklet and start to use it with one line of code.

<script>   CSS.paintWorklet.addModule('my-useful-paint-worklet.js'); </script>

This means there’s no need to implement commonly used styles every time. You can have a collection of your own worklets which can be used on any of your projects, or even shared with each other.

If you’re looking for modularity for HTML and JavaScript in additional to styles, then web components is the solution.

It’s very similar to what we already have in the JavaScript world. Most people won’t re-implement commonly used functions, like throttling or deep-copying objects. We simply import libraries, like Lodash.

I can imagine we could have CSS Houdini package management services if the popularity of CSS Houdini takes off, and anyone could import worklets for interesting waterfall layouts, background patterns, complex animation, etc.

Configurability

Houdini works well with CSS variables, which largely empowers itself. With CSS variables, a Houdini worklet can be configured by the user.

.my-element {   background-image: paint(triangle);   --direction: top;   --size: 20px; }

In the snippet, --direction and --size are CSS variables, and they’re used in the triangle worklet (defined by the author of the triangle worklet). The user can change the property to update how it displays, even dynamically updating CSS variables in JavaScript.

If we compare it to what we already have in JavaScript again, JavaScript libraries usually have options that can be passed along. For example, we can pass values for speed, direction, size and so on to a carousel library to make it perform the way we want. Offering these APIs at the element level in CSS is very useful.

A Houdini workflow makes my development process much more efficient

Let’s see a complete example of how this whole thing can work together to make development easier. We’ll use a tooltip design pattern as an example. I find myself using this pattern often in different websites, yet somehow re-implement for each new project.

Let’s briefly walk through my old experience:

  1. OK, I need a tooltip.
  2. It’s a box, with a triangle on one side. I’ll use a pseudo-element to draw the triangle.
  3. I can use the transparent border trick to draw the triangle.
  4. At this time, I most likely dig up my past projects to copy the code. Let me think… this one needs to point up, which side is transparent?
  5. Oh, the design requires a border for the tooltip. I have to use another pseudo-element and fake a border for the pointing triangle.
  6. What? They decide to change the direction of the triangle?! OK, OK. I will tweak all the values of both triangles…

It’s not rocket science. The whole process may only take five minutes. But let’s see how it can be better with Houdini.

I built a simple worklet to draw a tooltip, with many options to change its looks. You can download it on GitHub.

Here’s my new process, thanks to Houdini:

  1. OK, I need a tooltip.
  2. I’ll import this tooltip worklet and use it.
  3. Now I’ll modify it using custom properties.
<div class="tooltip-1">This is a tip</div> <script>CSS.paintWorklet.addModule('my-tooltip-worklet.js')</script> <style> .tooltip-1 {   background-image: paint(tooltip);   padding: calc(var(--triangle-size) * 1px + .5em) 1em 1em;   --round-radius: 0;   --background-color: #4d7990;   --triangle-size: 20;   --position: 20;   --direction: top;   --border-color: #333;   --border-width: 2;   color: #fff; } </style>

Here’s a demo! Go ahead and play around with variables!

CSS Houdini opens a door to modularized, configurable styles sharing. I look forward to seeing developers using and sharing CSS Houdini worklets. I’m trying to add more useful examples of Houdini usage. Ping me if you have ideas, or want to contribute to this repo.

The post CSS Houdini Could Change the Way We Write and Manage CSS appeared first on CSS-Tricks.

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Why I Write CSS in JavaScript

I’m never going to tell you that writing your CSS in CSS (or some syntactic preprocessor) is a bad idea. I think you can be perfectly productive and performant without any tooling at all. But, I also think writing CSS in JavaScript is a good idea for component-based styles in codebases that build all their components with JavaScript anyway.

In this article, Max Stoiber focuses on why to write CSS in JavaScript rather than how to do it. There is one reason that resonates strongly with me, and that’s confidence. This is what styling confidence means to me.

  • Anyone on a team can work on styling a component without any fear of unintended side effects.
  • There is no pressure to come up with perfect names that will work now and forever.
  • There is no worry about the styles needing to be extremely re-usable or that they play friendly with anything else. These styles will only be used when needed and not any other time.
  • There is an obvious standard to where styles are placed in the codebase.
  • CSS in JavaScript isn’t the only answer to those things, but as Max connects to other posts on the topic, it can lead to situations where good choices happen naturally.

    There are some reasons why I don’t buy into it. Performance is one of them, like choosing CSS-in-JS is some automatic performance win. Part of the problem (and I’m guilty of doing it right here) is that CSS-in-JS is a wide scope of solutions. I’ve generally found there is no big performance wins in CSS-in-JS (more likely the opposite), but that’s irrelevant if we’re talking about something like CSS modules with the styles extracted and linked up like any other CSS.

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