Tag: Themes

A DRY Approach to Color Themes in CSS

The other day, Florens Verschelde asked about defining dark mode styles for both a class and a media query, without repeat CSS custom properties declarations. I had run into this issue in the past but hadn’t come up with a proper solution.

What we want is to avoid redefining—and thus repeating—custom properties when switching between light and dark modes. That’s the goal of DRY (Don’t Repeat Yourself) programming, but the typical pattern for switching themes is usually something like this:

:root {   --background: #fff;   --text-color: #0f1031;   /* etc. */ }  @media (prefers-color-scheme: dark) {   :root {     --background: #0f1031;     --text-color: #fff;     /* etc. */   } }

See what I mean? Sure, it might not seem like a big deal in an abbreviated example like this, but imagine juggling dozens of custom properties at a time—that’s a lot of duplication!

Then I remembered Lea Verou’s trick using --var: ;, and while it didn’t hit me at first, I found a way to make it work: not with var(--light-value, var(--dark-value)) or some nested combination like that, but by using both side by side!

Certainly, someone smarter must have discovered this before me, but I haven‘t heard of leveraging (or rather abusing) CSS custom properties to achieve this. Without further ado, here’s the idea:

--color: var(--light, orchid) var(--dark, rebeccapurple);

If the --light value is set to initial, the fallback will be used (orchid), which means --dark should be set to a whitespace character (which is a valid value), making the final computed value look like this:

--color: orchid  ; /* Note the additional whitespace */

Conversely, if --light is set to a whitespace and --dark to initial, we end up with a computed value of:

--color:   rebeccapurple; /* Again, note the whitespace */

Now, this is great but we do need to define the --light and --dark custom properties, based on the context. The user can have a system preference in place (either light or dark), or can have toggled the website‘s theme with some UI element. Just like Florens‘s example, we’ll define these three cases, with some minor readability enhancement that Lea proposed using “on” and “off” constants to make it easier to understand at a glance:

:root {    /* Thanks Lea Verou! */   --ON: initial;   --OFF: ; }  /* Light theme is on by default */ .theme-default, .theme-light {   --light: var(--ON);   --dark: var(--OFF); }  /* Dark theme is off by default */ .theme-dark {   --light: var(--OFF);   --dark: var(--ON); }  /* If user prefers dark, then that's what they'll get */ @media (prefers-color-scheme: dark) {   .theme-default {     --light: var(--OFF);     --dark: var(--ON);   } }

We can then set up all of our theme variables in a single declaration, without repetition. In this example, the theme-* classes are set to the html element, so we can use :root as a selector, as many people like to do, but you could set them on the body, if the cascading nature of the custom properties makes more sense that way:

:root {   --text: var(--light, black) var(--dark, white);   --bg: var(--light, orchid) var(--dark, rebeccapurple); }

And to use them, we use var() with built-in fallbacks, because we like being careful:

body {   color: var(--text, navy);   background-color: var(--bg, lightgray); }

Hopefully you’re already starting to see the benefit here. Instead of defining and switching armloads of custom properties, we’re dealing with two and setting all the others just once on :root. That’s a huge improvement from where we started.

Even DRYer with pre-processors

If you were to show me this following line of code out of context, I’d certainly be confused because a color is a single value, not two!

--text: var(--light, black) var(--dark, white);

That’s why I prefer to abstract things a bit. We can set up a function with our favorite pre-processor, which is Sass in my case. If we keep our code above defining our --light and --dark values in various contexts, we need to make a change only on the actual custom property declaration. Let’s create a light-dark function that returns the CSS syntax for us:

@function light-dark($  light, $  dark) {   @return var(--light, #{ $  light }) var(--dark, #{ $  dark }); }

And we’d use it like this:

:root {    --text: #{ light-dark(black, white) };    --bg: #{ light-dark(orchid, rebeccapurple) };    --accent: #{ light-dark(#6d386b, #b399cc) }; }

You’ll notice there are interpolation delimiters #{ … } around the function call. Without these, Sass would output the code as is (like a vanilla CSS function). You can play around with various implementations of this but the syntax complexity is up to your tastes.

How’s that for a much DRYer codebase?

More than one theme? No problem!

You could potentially do this with more than two modes. The more themes you add, the more complex it becomes to manage, but the point is that it is possible! We add another theme set of ON or OFF variables, and set an extra variable in the list of values.

.theme-pride {   --light: var(--OFF);   --dark: var(--OFF);   --pride: var(--ON); }  :root {   --text:     var(--light, black)     var(--dark, white)     var(--pride, #ff8c00)   ; /* Line breaks are absolutely valid */    /* Other variables to declare… */ }

Is this hacky? Yes, it absolutely is. Is this a great use case for potential, not-yet-existing CSS booleans? Well, that’s the dream.

How about you? Is this something you’ve figured out with a different approach? Share it in the comments!

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My Visual Studio Code Setup: Extensions and Themes

Matthias Ott’s posted his VS Code setup. I find lists like this (I rounded up some recent updates of my own) irresistible, probably because, like y’all, I spend an awful lot of time in VS Code and wanna make sure I’m getting the most out of it.

Things from the list that stood out to me:

  • I didn’t realize Bracket Pair Colorizer had gone v2 and it’s a separate install.
  • I din’t realize you needed an extension to honor .editorconfig files.
  • I wasn’t using anything for PHP, but Matthias listed PHP Intelephense and I’m giving it a whirl. It has fewer users than the non-weirdly named one though? And when I installed that, I saw Format HTML in PHP which I’m also trying because, yes, please! (Even Prettier’s PHP add-on can’t do that.)

Messing with extensions is also a good opportunity to clear out old crap.

Also super interesting…

The main point of that series is cleaning up the interface of VS Code in extreme ways. All the way down to:

Direct Link to ArticlePermalink

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Creating Color Themes With Custom Properties, HSL, and a Little calc()

Before the advent of CSS custom properties (we might call them “variables” in this article as that’s the spirit of them), implementing multiple color schemes on the same website usually meant writing separate stylesheets. Definitely not the most maintainable thing in the world. Nowadays, though, we can define variables in a single stylesheet and let CSS do the magic.

Even if you aren’t offering something like user-generated or user-chosen color themes, you might still use the concept of theming on your website. For example, it is fairly common to use different colors themes across different areas of the site.

We’re going to build out an example like this:

Same layout, different colors.

In this example, all that changes between sections is the color hue; the variations in lightness are always the same. Here’s an example of a simplified color palette for a specific hue:

A palette of multiple hues might look something like this:

This would take effort to do with RGB color value, but in HSL only one value changes.

Enter custom properties

Custom properties have been around for a while and are widely supported. Polyfills and other solutions for IE 11 are also available.

The syntax is very similar to traditional CSS. Here is an overview of the basic usage:

It’s common to see variables defined on the :root pseudo-element, which is always <html> in HTML, but with higher specificity. That said, variables can be defined on any element which is useful for scoping specific variables to specific elements. For example, here are variables defined on data attributes:

Adding calc() to the mix

Variables don’t have to be fixed values. We can leverage the power of the calc() function to automatically calculate values for us while adhering to a uniform pattern:

Since CSS doesn’t support loops, a preprocessor would be handy to generate a part of the code. But remember: CSS variables are not the same as Sass variables.

Implementing CSS variables

What we’re basically trying to do is change the color of the same component on different sections of the same page. Like this:

We have three sections in tabs with their own IDs: #food, #lifestyle, and #travel. Each section corresponds to a different hue. The  data-theme-attribute on the div.wrapper element defines which hue is currently in use.

When #travel is the active tab, we’re using the --first-hue variable, which has a value of 180°. That is what gets used as the --hue value on the section, resulting in a teal color:

<div class="wrapper" data-theme="travel">
.wrapper[data-theme="travel"] {   --hue: var(--first-hue);  /* = 180° = teal */ }

Clicking any of the tabs updates the data-theme attribute to the ID of the section, while removing the hash (#) from it. This takes a smidge of JavaScript. That’s one of the (many) nice things about CSS: they can be accessed and manipulated with JavaScript. This is a far cry from preprocessor variables, which compile into values at the build stage and are no longer accessible in the DOM.

<li><a href="#food">Food</a></li>
const wrapper = document.querySelector('.wrapper'); document.querySelector("nav").addEventListener('click', e => {   e.preventDefault();   e.stopPropagation();   // Get theme name from URL and ditch the hash   wrapper.dataset.theme = e.target.getAttribute('href').substr(1); })

Progressive enhancement

When we use JavaScript, we should be mindful of scenarios where a user may have disabled it. Otherwise, our scripts — and our UI by extension — are inaccessible. This snippet ensures that the site content is still accessible, even in those situations:

document.querySelectorAll('section').forEach((section, i) => {   if (i) { // hide all but the first section     section.style.display = 'none';   } })

This merely allows the tabs to scroll up the page to the corresponding section. Sure, theming is gone, but providing content is much more important.

While I chose to go with a single-page approach, it’s also possible to serve the sections as separate pages and set [data-theme] on the server side. 

Another approach

So far, we’ve assumed that color values change linearly and are thus subject to a mathematical approach. But even in situations where this is only partially true, we may still be able to benefit from the same concept. For instance, if lightness follows a pattern but hue doesn’t, we could split up the stylesheet like this:

<head>   <style>     :root {       --hue: 260;     }   </style>   <link rel="stylesheet" href="stylesheet-with-calculations-based-on-any-hue.css"> </head>

Supporting web components

Web components are an exciting (and evolving) concept. It’s enticing to think we can have encapsulated components that can be reused anywhere and theme them on a case-by-case basis. One component with many contexts!

We can use CSS variable theming with web components. It requires us to use a host-context() pseudo-selector. (Thanks to habemuscode for pointing this out to me!)

:host-context(body[data-theme="color-1"]) {   --shade-1: var(--outsideHSL); }

In summary…

Theming a website with CSS custom properties is much easier than the workaround approaches we’ve resorted to in the past. It’s more maintainable (one stylesheet), performant (less code), and opens up new possibilities (using JavaScript). Not to mention, CSS custom properties become even more powerful when they’re used with HSL colors and the calc() function.

We just looked at one example where we can change the color theme of a component based on the section where it is used. But again, there is much more opportunity here when we start to get into things like letting users change themes themselves – a topic that Chris explores in this article.

The post Creating Color Themes With Custom Properties, HSL, and a Little calc() appeared first on CSS-Tricks.


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