Tag: Queries

Nested Media Queries

Using media queries in CSS as part of responsive websites is bread and butter stuff to todays front-end developer. Using preprocessors to make them more comfortable to write and easier to maintain has become common practice as well.

I spent a few months experimenting with a dozen different approaches to media queries in Sass and actually used a few in production. All of them eventually failed to cater for everything I needed to do in an elegant way. So I took what I liked about each of them and created a solution that covered all scenarios I came across.

Why use a preprocessor at all?

That’s a fair question. After all, what’s the point of doing all this if one can simply write media queries using pure CSS? Tidiness and maintainability.

The most common use for media queries is the transformation of a layout based on the browser’s viewport width. You can make a layout adapt in such a way that multiple devices with different screen sizes can enjoy an optimal experience. As a consequence, the expressions used to define the media queries will make reference to the typical screen width of those devices.

So if your code contains 5 media queries that target tablet devices with a width of 768px, you will hardcode that number 5 times, which is something ugly that my OCD would never forgive. First of all, I want my code to be easy to read to the point that anyone understands instantly that a media query is targeting tablet devices just by looking at it – I reckon the word tablet would do that better than 768px.

Also, what if that reference width changes in the future? I hate the idea of replacing it in 5 instances around the code, especially when it’s scattered around multiple files.

A first step would be to store that breakpoint in a variable and use it to construct the media query.

/* Using plain CSS */ @media (min-width: 768px) {    }  /* Using SCSS variables to store breakpoints */ $  breakpoint-tablet: 768px; @media (min-width: $  breakpoint-tablet) {    }

Another reason to write media queries with a preprocessor like Sass is that it can sometimes provide some precious help with the syntax, in particular when writing an expression with a logical or (represented with a comma in CSS).

For example, if you want to target retina devices, the pure CSS syntax starts getting a bit verbose:

/* Plain CSS */ @media (min-width: 768px) and         (-webkit-min-device-pixel-ratio: 2),         (min-width: 768px) and         (min-resolution: 192dpi) {  }  /* Using variables? */ @media (min-width: $  bp-tablet) and ($  retina) { // or #{$  retina}  } 

It does look nicer, but unfortunately it won’t work as expected.

A problem with logic

Because of the way the CSS “or” operator works, I wouldn’t be able to mix the retina conditions with other expressions since a (b or c) would be compiled into (a or b) c and not a b or a c.

$  retina: "(-webkit-min-device-pixel-ratio: 2), (min-resolution: 192dpi)";   // This will generate unwanted results! @media (min-width: 480px) and #{$  retina} {   body {     background-color: red;   } }
/* Not the logic we're looking for */ @media (min-width: 480px) and (-webkit-min-device-pixel-ratio: 2), (min-resolution: 192dpi) {   body {     background-color: red;   } }

I realized I needed something more powerful, like a mixin or a function, to address this. I tried a few solutions.

Dmitry Sheiko’s technique

One I tried was Dmitry Sheiko’s technique, which had a nice syntax and includes Chris’ retina declaration.

// Predefined Break-points $  mediaMaxWidth: 1260px; $  mediaBp1Width: 960px; $  mediaMinWidth: 480px;  @function translate-media-condition($  c) {   $  condMap: (     "screen": "only screen",     "print": "only print",     "retina": "(-webkit-min-device-pixel-ratio: 1.5), (min--moz-device-pixel-ratio: 1.5), (-o-min-device-pixel-ratio: 3/2), (min-device-pixel-ratio: 1.5), (min-resolution: 120dpi)",     ">maxWidth": "(min-width: #{$  mediaMaxWidth + 1})",     "<maxWidth": "(max-width: #{$  mediaMaxWidth})", 		     ">bp1Width": "(min-width: #{$  mediaBp1Width + 1})",     "<bp1Width": "(max-width: #{$  mediaBp1Width})",     ">minWidth": "(min-width: #{$  mediaMinWidth + 1})",     "<minWidth": "(max-width: #{$  mediaMinWidth})"   );   @return map-get( $  condMap, $  c ); }  // The mdia mixin @mixin media($  args...) {   $  query: "";   @each $  arg in $  args {     $  op: "";     @if ( $  query != "" ) {       $  op: " and ";     }     $  query: $  query + $  op + translate-media-condition($  arg);   }   @media #{$  query}  { @content; } }

But the problem with logical disjunction was still there.

.section {   @include media("retina", "<minWidth") {     color: white;   }; }
/* Not the logic we're looking for */ @media (-webkit-min-device-pixel-ratio: 1.5), (min--moz-device-pixel-ratio: 1.5), (-o-min-device-pixel-ratio: 3 / 2), (min-device-pixel-ratio: 1.5), (min-resolution: 120dpi) and (max-width: 480px) {   .section {     background: blue;     color: white;   } }

Landon Schropp’s technique

Landon Schropp’s was my next stop. Landon creates simple named mixins that do specific jobs. Like:

$  tablet-width: 768px; $  desktop-width: 1024px;  @mixin tablet {   @media (min-width: #{$  tablet-width}) and (max-width: #{$  desktop-width - 1px}) {     @content;   } }  @mixin desktop {   @media (min-width: #{$  desktop-width}) {     @content;   } }

He has a single-responsibility retina version as well.

But another problem hit me when I was styling an element that required additional rules on intermediate breakpoints. I didn’t want to pollute my list of global breakpoints with case-specific values just so I could still use the mixin, but I definitely didn’t want to forgo the mixin and go back to using plain CSS and hardcoding things every time I had to use custom values.

/* I didn't want to sometimes have this */ @include tablet {  }  /* And other times this */ @media (min-width: 768px) and (max-width: 950px) {  }

Breakpoint technique

Breakpoint-sass was next on my list, as it supports both variables and custom values in its syntax (and, as a bonus, it’s really clever with pixel ratio media queries).

I could write something like:

$  breakpoint-tablet: 768px;  @include breakpoint(453px $  breakpoint-tablet) {  }  @include breakpoint($  breakpoint-tablet 850px) {  }  /* Compiles to: */ @media (min-width: 453px) and (max-width: 768px) {  }  @media (min-width: 768px) and (max-width: 850px) {  }

Things were looking better, but I personally think that Breakpoint-sass’ syntax feels less natural than Dmitry’s. You can give it a number and it assumes it’s a min-width value, or a number and a string and it assumes a property/value pair, to name just a few of the combinations it supports.

That’s fine and I’m sure it works great once you’re used to it, but I hadn’t given up on finding a syntax that was both simple and as close as possible to the way I orally describe what a media query must target.

Also, if you look at the example above you’ll see that a device with a width of exactly 768px will trigger both media queries, which may not be exactly what we want. So I added the ability to write inclusive and exclusive breakpoints to my list of requirements.

My (Eduardo Bouças’s) technique

This is my take on it.

Clean syntax, dynamic declaration

I’m a fan of Dmitry’s syntax, so my solution was inspired by it. However, I’d like some more flexibility in the way breakpoints are created. Instead of hardcoding the names of the breakpoints in the mixin, I used a multidimensional map to declare and label them.

$  breakpoints: (phone: 640px,                 tablet: 768px,                 desktop: 1024px) !default;  @include media(">phone", "<tablet") { }  @include media(">tablet", "<950px") { }

The mixin comes with a set of default breakpoints, which you can override anywhere in the code by re-declaring the variable $ breakpoints.

Inclusive and exclusive breakpoints

I wanted to have a finer control over the intervals in the expressions, so I included support for the less-than-or-equal-to and greater-than-or-equal-to operators. This way I can use the same breakpoint declaration in two mutually exclusive media queries.

@include media(">=phone", "<tablet") {  }  @include media(">=tablet", "<=950px") {  }  /* Compiles to */ @media (min-width: 640px) and (max-width: 767px) {  }  @media (min-width: 768px) and (max-width: 950px) {  }

Infer media types and handle logic disjunction

Similarly to the breakpoints, there’s a list for media types and other static expressions declared by default (which you can override by setting the variable $ media-expressions). This adds support for optional media types, such as screen or handheld, but it’s also capable of correctly handling expressions with logical disjunctions, such as the retina media query we saw before. The disjunctions are declared as nested lists of strings.

$  media-expressions: (screen: "screen",                      handheld: "handheld",                     retina2x:                      ("(-webkit-min-device-pixel-ratio: 2)",                      "(min-resolution: 192dpi)")) !default;  @include media("screen", ">=tablet") {  }  @include media(">tablet", "<=desktop", "retina2x") {  }  /* Compiles to */ @media screen and (min-width: 768px) {  }  @media (min-width: 769px) and         (max-width: 1024px) and         (-webkit-min-device-pixel-ratio: 2),        (min-width: 769px) and         (max-width: 1024px) and         (min-resolution: 192dpi) {  }

There’s no rocket science under the hood, but the full implementation of the mixin isn’t something I could show in just a few lines of code. Instead of boring you with huge code snippets and neverending comments, I included a Pen with everything working and I’ll briefly describe the process it goes through to construct the media queries.

How it works

  1. The mixin receives multiple arguments as strings and starts by going through each one to figure out if it represents a breakpoint, a custom width, or one of the static media expressions.
  2. If an operator is found, it is extracted and any matching breakpoint will be returned, or else we assume it’s a custom value and cast it to a number (using SassyCast).
  3. If it’s a static media expression, it checks for any or operators and generates all the combinations necessary to represent the disjunction.
  4. The process is repeated for all the arguments and the results will by glued together by the and connector to form the media query expression.

If you’d like to look at the complete Sass for it, it’s here. It’s called include-media on GitHub.

Final thoughts

  • I’m a big fan of this technique to make Sass talk to JavaScript. Because we declare breakpoints as a multidimensional list with their names as keys, exporting them in bulk to JavaScript becomes really straightforward and can be done automatically with just a few lines of code.
  • I’m not trying to put down other people’s solutions and I’m definitely not saying this one is better. I mentioned them to show some of the obstacles I found along the way to my ideal solution, as well as some great things they introduced that inspired my own solution.
  • You might have some concerns about the length and complexity of this implementation. While I understand, the idea behind it is that you download one single file, @import it into your project and start using it without having to touch the source code. Ping me on Twitter though if you have any questions.
  • You can get it from GitHub and you are very welcome to contribute with issues/code/love. I’m sure there’s still a lot we can do to make it better.


Eduardo made a website for his approach: @include-media.

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Weekly Platform News: The :not() pseudo-class, Video Media Queries, clip-path: path() Support

Hey, we’re back with weekly updates about the browser landscape from Šime Vidas.

In this week’s update, the CSS :not pseudo class can accept complex selectors, how to disable smooth scrolling when using “Find on page…” in Chrome, Safari’s support for there media attribute on <video> elements, and the long-awaited debut of the path() function for the CSS clip-path property.

Let’s jump into the news…

The enhanced :not() pseudo-class enables new kinds of powerful selectors

After a years-long wait, the enhanced :not() pseudo-class has finally shipped in Chrome and Firefox, and is now supported in all major browser engines. This new version of :not() accepts complex selectors and even entire selector lists.

For example, you can now select all <p> elements that are not contained within an <article> element.

/* select all <p>s that are descendants of <article> */ article p { }  /* NEW! */ /* select all <p>s that are not descendants of <article> */ p:not(article *) { }

In another example, you may want to select the first list item that does not have the hidden attribute (or any other attribute, for that matter). The best selector for this task would be :nth-child(1 of :not([hidden])), but the of notation is still only supported in Safari. Luckily, this unsupported selector can now be re-written using only the enhanced :not() pseudo-class.

/* select all non-hidden elements that are not preceded by a non-hidden sibling (i.e., select the first non-hidden child */ :not([hidden]):not(:not([hidden]) ~ :not([hidden])) { }

The HTTP Refresh header can be an accessibility issue

The HTTP Refresh header (and equivalent HTML <meta> tag) is a very old and widely supported non-standard feature that instructs the browser to automatically and periodically reload the page after a given amount of time.

<!-- refresh page after 60 seconds --> <meta http-equiv="refresh" content="60">

According to Google’s data, the <meta http-equiv="refresh"> tag is used by a whopping 2.8% of page loads in Chrome (down from 4% a year ago). All these websites risk failing several success criteria of the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG):

If the time interval is too short, and there is no way to turn auto-refresh off, people who are blind will not have enough time to make their screen readers read the page before the page refreshes unexpectedly and causes the screen reader to begin reading at the top.

However, WCAG does allow using the <meta http-equiv="refresh"> tag specifically with the value 0 to perform a client-side redirect in the case that the author does not control the server and hence cannot perform a proper HTTP redirect.

(via Stefan Judis)

How to disable smooth scrolling for the “Find on page…” feature in Chrome

CSS scroll-behavior: smooth is supported in Chrome and Firefox. When this declaration is set on the <html> element, the browser scrolls the page “in a smooth fashion.” This applies to navigations, the standard scrolling APIs (e.g., window.scrollTo({ top: 0 })), and scroll snapping operations (CSS Scroll Snap).

Unfortunately, Chrome erroneously keeps smooth scrolling enabled even when the user performs a text search on the page (“Find on page…” feature). Some people find this annoying. Until that is fixed, you can use Christian Schaefer’s clever CSS workaround that effectively disables smooth scrolling for the “Find on page…” feature only.

@keyframes smoothscroll1 {   from,   to {     scroll-behavior: smooth;   } }  @keyframes smoothscroll2 {   from,   to {     scroll-behavior: smooth;   } }  html {   animation: smoothscroll1 1s; }  html:focus-within {   animation-name: smoothscroll2;   scroll-behavior: smooth; }

In the following demo, notice how clicking the links scrolls the page smoothly while searching for the words “top” and “bottom” scrolls the page instantly.

Safari still supports the media attribute on video sources

With the HTML <video> element, it is possible to declare multiple video sources of different MIME types and encodings. This allows websites to use more modern and efficient video formats in supporting browsers, while providing a fallback for other browsers.

<video>   <source src="/flower.webm" type="video/webm">   <source src="/flower.mp4" type="video/mp4"> </video>

In the past, browsers also supported the media attribute on video sources. For example, a web page could load a higher-resolution video if the user’s viewport exceeded a certain size.

<video>   <source media="(min-width: 1200px)" src="/large.mp4" type="video/mp4">   <source src="/small.mp4" type="video/mp4"> </video>

The above syntax is in fact still supported in Safari today, but it was removed from other browsers around 2014 because it was not considered a good feature:

It is not appropriate for choosing between low resolution and high resolution because the environment can change (e.g., the user might fullscreen the video after it has begun loading and want high resolution). Also, bandwidth is not available in media queries, but even if it was, the user agent is in a better position to determine what is appropriate than the author.

Scott Jehl (Filament Group) argues that the removal of this feature was a mistake and that websites should be able to deliver responsive video sources using <video> alone.

For every video we embed in HTML, we’re stuck with the choice of serving source files that are potentially too large or small for many users’ devices … or resorting to more complicated server-side or scripted or third-party solutions to deliver a correct size.

Scott has written a proposal for the reintroduction of media in video <source> elements and is welcoming feedback.

The CSS clip-path: path() function ships in Chrome

It wasn’t mentioned in the latest “New in Chrome 88” article, but Chrome just shipped the path() function for the CSS clip-path property, which means that this feature is now supported in all three major browser engines (Safari, Firefox, and Chrome).

The path() function is defined in the CSS Shapes module, and it accepts an SVG path string. Chris calls this the ultimate syntax for the clip-path property because it can clip an element with “literally any shape.” For example, here’s a photo clipped with a heart shape:

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Minimal Takes on Faking Container Queries

It’s sounding more and more likely that we’re actually going to get real container queries. Google is prototyping a syntax idea from David Baron and refined by Miriam Suzanne. Apparently, there has already been some prototyping done for a switch() syntax which is like container queries on values. Even now, there is stuff like the Raven technique which can do container query-esque values. This stuff will shake out over time.

If you need solutions today, most of them involve JavaScript watching what is going on (i.e. the container width) and then giving you some kind of styling hooks (e.g. classes). Here’s a quick review of the “minimal takes” landscape:

  • Philip Walton shows how to homegrow that with ResizeObserver. Watch sizing, apply classes for styling hooks.
  • Heydon Pickering has a <watched-box> web component that leverages ResizeObserver. Watch sizing, apply classes for styling hooks. (See combination with resizeasaurus.)
  • Scott Jehl made a <c-q> web component that leverages ResizeObserver. Watch sizing, apply data attributes for styling hooks.
  • Eric Portis made conditional-classes which leverages ResizeObserver and a clever (and valid) syntax involving CSS custom properties that end ups applying classes for styling hooks.

There is also Tommy Hodgins’ EQCSS, which does container queries (and other stuff) by looking through your CSS for the invented syntax that does these fancy things. I wouldn’t really call it minimalist, and it slightly creeps me out to ship invalid CSS syntax, but it does look robust.

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The Raven Technique: One Step Closer to Container Queries

For the millionth time: We need container queries in CSS! And guess what, it looks like we’re heading in that direction.

When building components for a website, you don’t always know how that component will be used. Maybe it will be render as wide as the browser window is. Maybe two of them will sit side by side. Maybe it will be in some narrow column. The width of it doesn’t always correlate with the width of the browser window.

It’s common to reach a point where having container based queries for the CSS of the component would be super handy. If you search around the web for solution to this, you’ll probably find several JavaScript-based solutions. But those come at a price: extra dependencies, styling that requires JavaScript, and polluted application logic and design logic.

I am a strong believer in separation of concerns, and layout is a CSS concern. For example, as nice of an API as IntersectionObserver is, I want things like :in-viewport in CSS! So I continued searching for a CSS-only solution and I came across Heydon Pickering’s The Flexbox Holy Albatross. It is a nice solution for columns, but I wanted more. There are some refinements of the original albatross (like The Unholy Albatross), but still, they are a little hacky and all that is happening is a rows-to-columns switch.

I still want more! I want to get closer to actual container queries! So, what does CSS have offer that I could tap into? I have a mathematical background, so functions like calc(), min(), max() and clamp() are things I like and understand.

Next step: build a container-query-like solution with them.

Want to see what is possible before reading on? Here is a CodePen collection showing off what can be done with the ideas discussed in this article.

Why “Raven”?

This work is inspired by Heydon’s albatross, but the technique can do more tricks, so I picked a raven, since ravens are very clever birds.

Recap: Math functions in CSS

The calc() function allows mathematical operations in CSS. As a bonus, one can combine units, so things like calc(100vw - 300px) are possible.

The min() and max() functions take two or more arguments and return the smallest or biggest argument (respectively).

The clamp() function is like a combination of min() and max() in a very useful way. The function clamp(a, x, b) will return:

  • a if x is smaller than a
  • b if x is bigger than b and
  • x if x is in between a and b

So it’s a bit like clamp(smallest, relative, largest). One may think of it as a shorthand for min(max(a,x),b). Here’s more info on all that if you’d like to read more.

We’re also going to use another CSS tool pretty heavily in this article: CSS custom properties. Those are the things like --color: red; or --distance: 20px. Variables, essentially. We’ll be using them to keep the CSS cleaner, like not repeating ourselves too much.

Let’s get started with this Raven Technique.

Step 1: Create configuration variables

Let’s create some CSS custom properties to set things up.

What is the base size we want our queries to be based on? Since we’re shooting for container query behavior, this would be 100% — using 100vw would make this behave like a media query, because that’s the width of the browser window, not the container!

--base_size: 100%;

Now we think about the breakpoints. Literally container widths where we want a break in order to apply new styles.

--breakpoint_wide: 1500px;  /* Wider than 1500px will be considered wide */ --breakpoint_medium: 800px; /* From 801px to 1500px will be considered medium */ /* Smaller than or exact 800px will be small */

In the running example, we will use three intervals, but there is no limit with this technique.

Now let’s define some (CSS length) values we would like to be returned for the intervals defined by the breakpoints. These are literal values:

--length_4_small: calc((100% / 1) - 10px); /* Change to your needs */ --length_4_medium: calc((100% / 2) - 10px); /* Change to your needs */ --length_4_wide: calc((100% / 3) - 10px); /* Change to your needs */

This is the config. Let’s use it!

Step 2: Create indicator variables

We will create some indicator variables for the intervals. They act a bit like boolean values, but with a length unit (0px and 1px). If we clamp those lengths as minimum and maximum values, then they serve as a sort of “true” and “false” indicator.

So, if, and only if --base_size is bigger than --breakpoint_wide, we want a variable that’s 1px. Otherwise, we want 0px. This can be done with clamp():

--is_wide: clamp(0px,   var(--base_size) - var(--breakpoint_wide),   1px );

If var(--base_size) - var(--breakpoint_wide) is negative, then --base_size is smaller than --breakpoint_wide, so clamp() will return 0px in this case.

Conversely, if --base_size is bigger than --breakpoint_wide, the calculation will give a positive length, which is bigger than or equal to 1px. That means clamp() will return 1px.

Bingo! We got an indicator variable for “wide.”

Let’s do this for the “medium” interval:

--is_medium: clamp(0px,   var(--base_size) - var(--breakpoint_medium),   1px ); /*  DO NOT USE, SEE BELOW! */

This will give us 0px for the small interval, but 1px for the medium and the wide interval. What we want, however, is 0px for the wide interval and 1px for the medium interval exclusively.

We can solve this by subtracting --is_wide value. In the wide interval, 1px - 1px is 0px; in the medium interval 1px - 0px is 1px; and for the small interval 0px - 0px gives 0px. Perfect.

So we get:

--is_medium: calc(   clamp(0px,    var(--base_size) - var(--breakpoint_medium),    1px)    - var(--is_wide) ); 

See the idea? To calculate an indicator variable, use clamp() with 0px and 1px as borders and the difference of --base_width and --breakpoint_whatever as the clamped value. Then subtract the sum of all indicators for bigger intervals. This logic produces the following for the smallest interval indicator:

--is_small: calc(   clamp(0px,     (var(--base_size) - 0px,     1px)   - (var(--is_medium) + var(--is_wide)) ); 

We can skip the clamp here because the breakpoint for small is 0px and --base_size is positive, so --base_size - 0px is alway bigger than 1px and clamp() will always return 1px. Therefore, the calculation of --is_small can be simplified to:

--is_small: calc(1px - (var(--is_medium) + var(--is_wide))); 

Step 3: Use indicator variables to select interval values

Now we need to go from these “indicator variables” to something useful. Let’s assume we’re working with a pixel-based layout. Don’t panic, we will handle other units later.

Here’s a question. What does this return?

calc(var(--is_small) * 100);

If --is_small is 1px, it will return 100px and if --is_small is 0px, it will return 0px.

How is this useful? See this:

calc(   (var(--is_small) * 100)    +   (var(--is_medium) * 200)  );

This will return 100px + 0px = 100px in the small interval (where --is_small is 1px and --is_medium is 0px). In the medium interval (where --is_medium is 1px and --is_small is 0px), it will return 0px + 200px = 200px.

Do you get the idea? See Roman Komarov’s article for a deeper look at what is going on here because it can be complex to grasp.

You multiply a pixel value (without a unit) by the corresponding indicator variable and sum up all these terms. So, for a pixel based layout, something like this is sufficient:

width: calc(     (var(--is_small)  * 100)    + (var(--is_medium) * 200)    + (var(--is_wide)   * 500)    ); 

But most of the time, we don’t want pixel-based values. We want concepts, like “full width” or “third width” or maybe even other units, like 2rem, 65ch, and the like. We’ll have to keep going here for those.

Step 4: Use min() and an absurdly large integer to select arbitrary-length values

In the first step, we defined something like this instead of a static pixel value:

--length_4_medium: calc((100% / 2) - 10px);

How can we use them then? The min() function to the rescue!

Let’s define one helper variable:

--very_big_int: 9999;  /* Pure, unitless number. Must be bigger than any length appearing elsewhere. */

Multiplying this value by an indicator variable gives either 0px or 9999px. How large this value should be depends on your browser. Chrome will take 999999, but Firefox will not accept that high of a number, so 9999 is a value that will work in both. There are very few viewports larger than 9999px around, so we should be OK.

What happens, then, when we min() this with any value smaller than 9999px but bigger than 0px?

min(   var(--length_4_small),    var(--is_small) * var(--very_big_int)  );

If, and only if --is_small is 0px, it will return 0px. If --is_small is 1px, the multiplication will return 9999px (which is bigger than --length_4_small), and min will return: --length_4_small.

This is how we can select any length (that is, smaller than 9999px but bigger than 0px) based on indicator variables.

If you deal with viewports larger than 9999px, then you’ll need to adjust the --very_big_int variable. This is a bit ugly, but we can fix this the moment pure CSS can drop the unit on a value in order to get rid of the units at our indicator variables (and directly multiply it with any length). For now, this works.

We will now combine all the parts and make the Raven fly!

Step 5: Bringing it all together

We can now calculate our dynamic container-width-based, breakpoint-driven value like this:

--dyn_length: calc(     min(var(--is_wide)   * var(--very_big_int), var(--length_4_wide))    + min(var(--is_medium) * var(--very_big_int), var(--length_4_medium))   + min(var(--is_small)  * var(--very_big_int), var(--length_4_small)) ); 

Each line is a min() from Step 4. All lines are added up like in Step 3, the indicator variables are from Step 2 and all is based on the configuration we did in Step 1 — they work all together in one big formula!

Want to try it out? Here is a is a Pen to play with (see the notes in the CSS).

This Pen uses no flexbox, no grid, no floats. Just some divs. This is to show that helpers are unnecessary in this kind of layout. But feel free to use the Raven with these layouts too as it will help you do more complex layouts.

Anything else?

So far, we’ve used fixed pixel values as our breakpoints, but maybe we want to change layout if the container is bigger or smaller than half of the viewport, minus 10px? No problem:

--breakpoint_wide: calc(50vw - 10px);

That just works! Other formulas work as well. To avoid strange behavior, we want to use something like:

--breakpoint_medium: min(var(--breakpoint_wide), 500px);

…to set a second breakpoint at 500px width. The calculations in Step 2 depend on the fact that --breakpoint_wide is not smaller than --breakpoint_medium. Just keep your breakpoints in the right order: min() and/or max() are very useful here!

What about heights?

The evaluations of all the calculations are done lazily. That is, when assigning --dyn_length to any property, the calculation will be based on whatever --base_size evaluates to in this place. So setting a height will base the breakpoints on 100% height, if --base_size is 100%.

I have not (yet) found a way to set a height based on the width of a container. So, you can use padding-top since 100% evaluates to the width for padding.

What about showing and hiding things?

The simplest way to show and hide things the Raven way is to set the width to 100px (or any other suitable width) at the appropriate indicator variable:

.show_if_small {   width: calc(var(--is_small) * 100); } .show_if_medium {   width: calc(var(--is_medium) * 100); } .show_if_wide {   width: calc(var(--is_wide) * 100); }

You need to set:

overflow: hidden; display: inline-block; /* to avoid ugly empty lines */

…or some other way to hide things within a box of width: 0px. Completely hiding the box requires setting additional box model properties, including margin, padding and border-width, to 0px . The Raven can do this for some properties, but it’s just as effective to fix them to 0px.

Another alternative is to use position: absolute; and draw the element off-screen via left: calc(var(--is_???) * 9999);.


We might not need JavaScript at all, even for container query behavior! Certainly, we’d hope that if we actually get container queries in the CSS syntax, it will be a lot easier to use and understand — but it’s also very cool that things are possible in CSS today.

While working on this, I developed some opinions about other things CSS could use:

  • Container based units like cw and ch to set heights based on width. These units could be based on the root element of the current stacking context.
  • Some sort of “evaluate to value” function, to overcome problems with lazy evaluation. This would work great with a “strip unit” function that works at render time.

If we had that second one, it would allow us to set colors (in a clean way), borders, box-shadow, flex-grow, background-position, z-index, scale(), and other things with the Raven.

Together with component-based units, setting child dimensions to the same aspect-ratio as the parent would even be possible. Dividing by a value with unit is not possible; otherwise --indicator / 1px would work as “strip unit” for the Raven.

Bonus: Boolean logic

Indicator variables look like boolean values, right? The only difference is they have a “px” unit. What about the logical combination of those? Imagine things like “container is wider than half the screen” and “layout is in two-column mode.” CSS functions to the rescue again!

For the OR operator, we can max() over all of the indicators:

--a_OR_b: max( var(--indicator_a) , var(--indicator_b) ); 

For the NOT operator, we can subtract the indicator from 1px:

--NOT_a: calc(1px - var(--indicator_a)); 

Logic purists may stop here, since NOR(a,b) = NOT(OR(a,b)) is complete boolean algebra. But, hey, just for fun, here are some more:


--a_AND_b: min(var(--indicator_a), var(--indicator_b));  

This evaluates to 1px if and only if both indicators are 1px.

Note that min() and max() take more than two arguments. They still work as an AND and OR for (more than two) indicator variables.


--a_XOR_b: max(   var(--indicator_a) - var(--indicator_b),    var(--indicator_b) - var(--indicator_a) ); 

If (and only if) both indicators have the same value, both differences are 0px, and max() will return this. If the indicators have different values, one term will give -1px, the other will give 1px. max() returns 1px in this case.

If anyone is interested in the case where two indicators are equal, use this:

--a_EQ_b: calc(1px -    max(     var(--indicator_a) - var(--indicator_b),      var(--indicator_b) - var(--indicator_a)   ) ); 

And yes, this is NOT(a XOR b). I was unable to find a “nicer” solution to this.

Equality may be interesting for CSS length variables in general, rather than just being used for indicator variables. By using clamp() once again, this might help:

--a_EQUALS_b_general: calc(   1px -   clamp(0px,         max(           var(--var_a) - var(--var_b),           var(--var_b) - var(--var_a)         ),         1px)   ); 

Remove the px units to get general equality for unit-less variables (integers).

I think this is enough boolean logic for most layouts!

Bonus 2: Set the number of columns in a grid layout

Since the Raven is limited to return CSS length values, it is unable to directly choose the number of columns for a grid (since this is a value without a unit). But there is a way to make it work (assuming we declared the indicator variables like above):

--number_of_cols_4_wide: 4; --number_of_cols_4_medium: 2; --number_of_cols_4_small: 1; --grid_gap: 0px;  --grid_columns_width_4_wide: calc( (100% - (var(--number_of_cols_4_wide) - 1) * var(--grid_gap) ) / var(--number_of_cols_4_wide)); --grid_columns_width_4_medium: calc( (100% - (var(--number_of_cols_4_medium) - 1) * var(--grid_gap) ) / var(--number_of_cols_4_medium)); --grid_columns_width_4_small: calc( (100% - (var(--number_of_cols_4_small) - 1) * var(--grid_gap) ) / var(--number_of_cols_4_small));  --raven_grid_columns_width: calc( /*  use the Raven to combine the values  */   min(var(--is_wide) * var(--very_big_int),var(--grid_columns_width_4_wide))    + min(var(--is_medium) * var(--very_big_int),var(--grid_columns_width_4_medium))   + min(var(--is_small) * var(--very_big_int),var(--grid_columns_width_4_small))   );

And set your grid up with:

.grid_container{   display: grid;   grid-template-columns: repeat(auto-fit, var(--raven_grid_columns_width));   gap: var(--grid_gap) };

How does this work?

  1. Define the number of columns we want for each interval (lines 1, 2, 3)
  2. Calculate the perfect width of the columns for each interval (lines 5, 6, 7).

    What is happening here?

    First, we calculate the available space for our columns. This is 100%, minus the place the gaps will take. For n columns, there are (n-1) gaps. This space is then divided by the number of columns we want.

  3. Use the Raven to calculate the right column’s width for the actual --base_size.

In the grid container, this line:

grid-template-columns: repeat(auto-fit, var(--raven_grid_columns_width));

…then chooses the number of columns to fit the value the Raven provided (which will result in our --number_of_cols_4_??? variables from above).

The Raven may not be able give the number of columns directly, but it can give a length to make repeat and autofit calculate the number we want for us.

But auto-fit with minmax() does the same thing, right? No! The solution above will never give three columns (or five) and the number of columns does not need to increase with the width of the container. Try to set the following values in this Pen to see the Raven take full flight:

--number_of_cols_4_wide: 1; --number_of_cols_4_medium: 2; --number_of_cols_4_small: 4;

Bonus 3: Change the background-color with a linear-gradient()

This one is a little more mind-bending. The Raven is all about length values, so how can we get a color out of these? Well, linear gradients deal with both. They define colors in certain areas defined by length values. Let’s go through that concept in more detail before getting to the code.

To work around the actual gradient part, it is a well known technique to double up a color stop, effectively making the gradient part happen within 0px. Look at this code to see how this is done:

background-image:linear-gradient(   to right,   red 0%,   red 50%,   blue 50%,   blue 100% );

This will color your background red on the left half, blue on the right. Note the first argument “to right.” This implies that percentage values are evaluated horizontally, from left to right.

Controlling the values of 50% via Raven variables allows for shifting the color stop at will. And we can add more color stops. In the running example, we need three colors, resulting in two (doubled) inner color stops.

Adding some variables for color and color stops, this is what we get:

background-image: linear-gradient(   to right,   var(--color_small) 0px,   var(--color_small) var(--first_lgbreak_value),   var(--color_medium) var(--first_lgbreak_value),   var(--color_medium) var(--second_lgbreak_value),   var(--color_wide) var(--second_lgbreak_value),   var(--color_wide) 100% );

But how do we calculate the values for --first_lgbreak_value and --second_lgbreak_value? Let’s see.

The first value controls where --color_small is visible. On the small interval, it should be 100%, and 0px in the other intervals. We’ve seen how to do this with the raven. The second variable controls the visibility of --color_medium. It should be 100% for the small interval, 100% for the medium interval, but 0px for the wide interval. The corresponding indicator must be 1px if the container width is in the small or the medium interval.

Since we can do boolean logic on indicators, it is:

max(--is_small, --is_medium)

…to get the right indicator. This gives:

--first_lgbreak_value: min(var(--is_small) * var(--very_big_int), 100%); --second_lgbreak_value: min(   max(var(--is_small), var(--is_medium)) * var(--very_big_int), 100%); 

Putting things together results in this CSS code to change the background-color based on the width (the interval indicators are calculated like shown above):

--first_lgbreak_value: min(       var(--is_small) * var(--very_big_int), 100%); --second_lgbreak_value: min(     max(var(--is_small), var(--is_medium)) * var(--very_big_int), 100%);  --color_wide: red;/* change to your needs*/ --color_medium: green;/* change to your needs*/ --color_small: lightblue;/* change to your needs*/  background-image: linear-gradient(   to right,   var(--color_small) 0px,   var(--color_small) var(--first_lgbreak_value),   var(--color_medium) var(--first_lgbreak_value),   var(--color_medium) var(--second_lgbreak_value),   var(--color_wide) var(--second_lgbreak_value),   var(--color_wide) 100% );

Here’s a Pen to see that in action.

Bonus 4: Getting rid of nested variables

While working with the Raven, I came across a strange problem: There is a limit on the number of nested variables that can be used in calc(). This can cause some problems when using too many breakpoints. As far as I understand, this limit is in place to prevent page blocking while calculating the styles and allow for faster circle-reference checks.

In my opinion, something like evaluate to value would be a great way to overcome this. Nevertheless, this limit can give you a headache when pushing the limits of CSS. Hopefully this problem will be tackled in the future.

There is a way to calculate the indicator variables for the Raven without the need of (deeply) nested variables. Let’s look at the original calculation for the --is_medium value:

--is_medium:calc(   clamp(0px,          var(--base_size) - var(--breakpoint_medium),          1px)          - var(--is_wide) ); 

The problem occurs with the subtraction of --is_wide . This causes the CSS parser to paste in the definition of the complete formula of --is_wide. The calculation of --is_small has even more of these types of references. (The definition for --is_wide will even be pasted twice since it is hidden within the definition of --is_medium and is also used directly.)

Fortunately, there is a way to calculate indicators without referencing indicators for bigger breakpoints.

The indicator is true if, and only if, --base_size is bigger than the lower breakpoint for the interval and smaller or equal than the higher breakpoint for the interval. This definition gives us the following code:

--is_medium:    min(     clamp(0px, var(--base_size) - var(--breakpoint_medium), 1px),     clamp(0px, 1px + var(--breakpoint_wide) - var(--base_size), 1px)   ); 
  • min() is used as a logical AND operator
  • the first clamp() is “--base_size is bigger than --breakpoint_medium
  • the second clamp() means “--base_size is smaller or equal than --breakpoint_wide.”
  • Adding 1px switches from “smaller than” to “smaller or equal than.” This works, because we are dealing with whole (pixel) numbers (a <= b means a < (b+1) for whole numbers).

The complete calculation of the indicator variables can be done this way:

--is_wide: clamp(0px, var(--base_size) - var(--breakpoint_wide), 1px);  --is_medium: min(clamp(0px, var(--base_size) - var(--breakpoint_medium), 1px),                  clamp(0px, 1px + var(--breakpoint_wide) - var(--base_size), 1px)              );  --is_small: clamp(0px,1px + var(--breakpoint_medium) - var(--base_size), 1px); 

The calculations for --is_wide and --is_small are simpler, because only one given breakpoint needs to be checked for each.

This works with all the things we’ve looked at so far. Here’s a Pen that combines examples.

Final thoughts

The Raven is not capable of all the things that a media query can do. But we don’t need it to do that, as we have media queries in CSS. It is fine to use them for the “big” design changes, like the position of a sidebar or a reconfiguration of a menu. Those things happen within the context of the full viewport (the size of the browser window).

But for components, media queries are kind of wrong, since we never know how components will be sized.

Heydon Pickering demonstrated this problem with this image:

Three boxes representing browsers from left-to-right. The first is a wide viewport with three boxes in a single row. The second is a narrow viewport with the boxes stacked vertically. The third is a wide viewport, but with a dashed vertical line down the middle representing a container and the three boxes are to the right of it in a single row.

I hope that the Raven helps you to overcome the problems of creating responsive layouts for components and pushes the limits of “what can be done with CSS” a little bit further.

By showing what is possible today, maybe “real” container queries can be done by adding some syntax sugar and some very small new functions (like cw, ch, “strip-unit” or “evaluate-to-pixels”). If there was a function in CSS that allows to rewrite “1px” to a whitespace, and “0px” to “initial“, the Raven could be combined with the Custom Property Toggle Trick and change every CSS property, not just length values.

By avoiding JavaScript for this, your layouts will render faster because it’s not dependent on JavaScript downloading or running. It doesn’t even matter if JavaScript is disabled. These calculations will not block your main thread and your application logic isn’t cluttered with design logic.

Thanks to Chris, Andrés Galante, Cathy Dutton, Marko Ilic, and David Atanda for their great CSS-Tricks articles. They really helped me explore what can be done with the Raven.

The post The Raven Technique: One Step Closer to Container Queries appeared first on CSS-Tricks.

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A Complete Guide to CSS Media Queries

Media queries are a way to target browser by certain characteristics, features, and user preferences, then apply styles or run other code based on those things. Perhaps the most common media queries in the world are those that target particular viewport ranges and apply custom styles, which birthed the whole idea of responsive design.

/* When the browser is at least 600px and above */ @media screen and (min-width: 600px) {   .element {     /* Apply some styles */   } }

There are lots of other things we can target beside viewport width. That might be screen resolution, device orientation, operating system preference, or even more among a whole bevy of things we can query and use to style content.

Looking for a quick list of media queries based on the viewports of standard devices, like phones, tablets and laptops? Check out our collection of snippets.

Using media queries

Media queries are commonly associated with CSS, but they can be used in HTML and JavaScript as well.


There are a few ways we can use media queries directly in HTML.

There’s the <link> element that goes right in the document <head>. In this example. we’re telling the browser that we want to use different stylesheets at different viewport sizes:

<html>   <head>     <!-- Served to all users -->     <link rel="stylesheet" href="all.css" media="all" />     <!-- Served to screens that are at least 20em wide -->     <link rel="stylesheet" href="small.css" media="(min-width: 20em)" />     <!-- Served to screens that are at least 64em wide -->     <link rel="stylesheet" href="medium.css" media="(min-width: 64em)" />     <!-- Served to screens that are at least 90em wide -->     <link rel="stylesheet" href="large.css" media="(min-width: 90em)" />     <!-- Served to screens that are at least 120em wide -->     <link rel="stylesheet" href="extra-large.css" media="(min-width: 120em)" />     <!-- Served to print media, like printers -->     <link rel="stylesheet" href="print.css" media="print" />   </head>   <!-- ... --> </html>

Why would you want to do that? It can be a nice way to fine-tune the performance of your site by splitting styles up in a way that they’re downloaded and served by the devices that need them.

But just to be clear, this doesn’t always prevent the stylesheets that don’t match those media queries from downloading, it just assigns them a low loading priority level. So, if a small screen device like a phone visits the site, it will only download the stylesheets in the media queries that match its viewport size. But if a larger desktop screen comes along, it will download the entire bunch because it matches all of those queries (well, minus the print query in this specific example).

That’s just the <link> element. As our guide to responsive images explains, we can use media queries on <source> element, which informs the <picture> element what version of an image the browser should use from a set of image options.

<picture>   <!-- Use this image if the screen is at least 800px wide -->   <source srcset="cat-landscape.png" media="(min-width: 800px)">   <!-- Use this image if the screen is at least 600px wide -->   <source srcset="cat-cropped.png" media="(min-width: 600px)">    <!-- Use this image if nothing matches -->   <img src="cat.png" alt="A calico cat with dark aviator sunglasses."> </picture>

Again, this can be a nice performance win because we can serve smaller images to smaller devices — which presumably (but not always) will be low powered devices that might be limited to a data plan.

And let’s not forget that we can use media queries directly on the <style> element as well:

<style>   p {     background-color: blue;     color: white;   } </style>  <style media="all and (max-width: 500px)">   p {     background-color: yellow;     color: blue;   } </style>

Again, CSS is the most common place to spot a media query in the wild. They go right in the stylesheet in an @media rule that wraps elements with conditions for when and where to apply a set of styles when a browser matches those conditions.

/* Viewports between 320px and 480px wide */ @media only screen and (min-device-width: 320px) and (max-device-width: 480px)   .card {     background: #bada55;   } }

It’s also possible to scope imported style sheet but as a general rule avoid using @import since it performs poorly.

/* Avoid using @import if possible! */  /* Base styles for all screens */ @import url("style.css") screen; /* Styles for screens in a portrait (narrow) orientation */ @import url('landscape.css') screen and (orientation: portrait); /* Print styles */ @import url("print.css") print;

We can use media queries in JavaScript, too! And guess, what? They’re work a lot like they do in CSS. The difference? We start by using the window.matchMedia() method to define the conditions first.

So, say we want to log a message to the console when the browser is at least 768px wide. We can create a constant that calls matchMedia() and defines that screen width:

// Create a media condition that targets viewports at least 768px wide const mediaQuery = window.matchMedia( '( min-width: 768px )' )

Then we can fire log to the console when that condition is matched:

// Create a media condition that targets viewports at least 768px wide const mediaQuery = window.matchMedia( '( min-width: 768px )' ) 
 // Check if the media query is true if ( mediaQuery ) {   // Then log the following message to the console   console.log('Media Query Matched!') }

Unfortunately, this only fires once so if the alert is dismissed, it won’t fire again if we change the screen width and try again without refreshing. That’s why it’s a good idea to use a listener that checks for updates.

// Create a condition that targets viewports at least 768px wide const mediaQuery = window.matchMedia('(min-width: 768px)') 
 function handleTabletChange(e) {   // Check if the media query is true   if (e) {     // Then log the following message to the console     console.log('Media Query Matched!')   } } 
 // Register event listener mediaQuery.addListener(handleTabletChange)  // Initial check handleTabletChange(mediaQuery)

Check out Marko Ilic’s full post on “Working with JavaScript Media Queries” for a deeper dive on this, including a comparison of using media queries with an older JavaScript approach that binds a resize event listener that checks window.innerWidth or window.innerHeight to fire changes.

Anatomy of a Media Query

Now that we’ve seen several examples of where media queries can be used, let’s pick them apart and see what they’re actually doing.

@media [media-type] ([media-feature]) {   /* Styles! */ }

The first ingredient in a media query recipe is the @media rule itself, which is one of many CSS at-rules. Why does @media get all the attention? Because it’s geared to the type of media that a site is viewed with, what features that media type supports, and operators that can be combined to mix and match simple and complex conditions alike.

Media types
@media screen {   /* Styles! */ }

What type of media are we trying to target? In many (if not most) cases, you’ll see a screen value used here, which makes sense since many of the media types we’re trying to match are devices with screens attached to them.

But screens aren’t the only type of media we can target, of course. We have a few, including:

  • all: Matches all devices
  • print: Matches documents that are viewed in a print preview or any media that breaks the content up into pages intended to print.
  • screen: Matches devices with a screen
  • speech: Matches devices that read the content audibly, such as a screenreader. This replaces the now deprecated aural type since Media Queries Level 4.

To preview print styles in a screen all major browsers can emulate the output of a print stylesheet using DevTools. Other media types such as tty, tv,  projection,  handheld, braille, embossed and aural have been deprecated and, while the spec continues to advise browsers to recognize them, they must evaluate to nothing. If you are using one of these consider changing it for a modern approach.

Media features

Once we define the type of media we’re trying to match, we can start defining what features we are trying to match it to. We’ve looked at a lot of examples that match screens to width, where screen is the type and both min-width and max-width are features with specific values.

But there are many, many (many!) more “features” we can match. Media Queries Level 4 groups 18 media features into 5 categories.

Viewport/Page Characteristics

Feature Summary Values Added
width Defines the widths of the viewport. This can be a specific number (e.g. 400px) or a range (using min-width and max-width). <length>
height Defines the height of the viewport. This can be a specific number (e.g. 400px) or a range (using min-height and max-height). <length>
aspect-ratio Defines the width-to-height aspect ratio of the viewport <ratio>
orientation The way the screen is oriented, such as tall (portrait) or wide (landscape) based on how the device is rotated. portrait


overflow-block Checks how the device treats content that overflows the viewport in the block direction, which can be scroll (allows scrolling), optional-paged (allows scrolling and manual page breaks), paged (broken up into pages), and none (not displayed). scroll



Media Queries Level 4
overflow-inline Checks if content that overflows the viewport along the inline axis be scrolled, which is either none (no scrolling) or scroll (allows scrolling). scroll


Media Queries Level 4

Display Quality

Feature Summary Values Added
resolution Defines the target pixel density of the device <resolution>


scan Defines the scanning process of the device, which is the way the device paints an image onto the screen (where interlace draws odd and even lines alternately, and progressive draws them all in sequence). interlace


grid Determines if the device uses a grid (1) or bitmap (0) screen 0 = Bitmap
1 = Grid
Media Queries Level 5
update Checks how frequently the device can modify the appearance of content (if it can at all), with values including none, slow and fast. slow



Media Queries Level 4
environment-blending A method for determining the external environment of a device, such as dim or excessively bright places. opaque



display-mode Tests the display mode of a device, including fullscreen(no browsers chrome), standalone (a standalone application), minimal-ui (a standalone application, but with some navigation), and browser (a more traditional browser window) fullscreen




Web App Manifest


Feature Summary Values Added
color Defines the color support of a device, expressed numerically as bits. So, a value of 12 would be the equivalent of a device that supports 12-bit color, and a value of zero indicates no color support. <integer>
color-index Defines the number of values the device supports. This can be a specific number (e.g. 10000) or a range (e.g. min-color-index: 10000, max-color-index: 15000), just like width. <integer>
monochrome The number of bits per pixel that a device’s monochrome supports, where zero is no monochrome support. <integer>
color-gamut Defines the range of colors supported by the browser and device, which could be srgb, p3 or rec2020 srgb



Media Queries Level 4
dynamic-range The combination of how much brightness, color depth, and contrast ratio supported by the video plane of the browser and user device. standard


inverted-colors Checks if the browser or operating system is set to invert colors (which can be useful for optimizing accessibility for sight impairments involving color) inverted


Media Queries Level 5


Feature Summary Values Added
pointer Sort of like any-pointer but checks if the primary input mechanism is a pointer and, if so, how accurate it is (where coarse is less accurate, fine is more accurate, and none is no pointer). coarse



Media Queries Level 4
hover Sort of like any-hover but checks if the primary input mechanism (e.g. mouse of touch) allows the user to hover over elements hover


Media Queries Level 4
any-pointer Checks if the device uses a pointer, such as a mouse or styles, as well as how accurate it is (where coarse is less accurate and fine is more accurate) coarse



Media Queries Level 4
any-hover Checks if the device is capable of hovering elements, like with a mouse or stylus. In some rare cases, touch devices are capable of hovers. hover


Media Queries Level 4

Video Prefixed

The spec references user agents, including TVs, that render video and graphics in two separate planes that each have their own characteristics. The following features describe those planes.

Feature Summary Values Added
video-color-gamut Describes the approximate range of colors supported by the video plane of the browser and user device srgb



Media Queries Level 5
video-dynamic-range The combination of how much brightness, color depth, and contrast ratio supported by the video plane of the browser and user device. standard


Media Queries Level 5
video-width¹ The width of the video plane area of the targeted display <length> Media Queries Level 5
video-height¹ The height of the video plane area of the targeted display <length> Media Queries Level 5
video-resolution¹ The resolution of the video plane area of the targeted display <resolution>


Media Queries Level 5
¹ Under discussion (Issue #5044)


Feature Summary Values Added
scripting Checks whether the device allows scripting (i.e. JavaScript) where enabled allows scripting, iniital-only enabled


Media Queries Level 5

User Preference

Feature Summary Values Added
prefers-reduced-motion Detects if the user’s system settings are set to reduce motion on the page, which is a great accessibility check. no-preference


Media Queries Level 5
prefers-reduced-transparency Detects if the user’s system settings prevent transparent across elements. no-preference


Media Queries Level 5
prefers-contrast Detects if the user’s system settings are set to either increase or decrease the amount of contrast between colors. no-preference




Media Queries Level 5
prefers-color-scheme Detects if the user prefers a light or dark color scheme, which is a rapidly growing way to go about creating “dark mode” interfaces. light


Media Queries Level 5
forced-colors Tests whether the browser restricts the colors available to use (which is none or active) active


Media Queries Level 5
prefers-reduced-data Detects if the user prefers to use less data for the page to be rendered. no-preference


Media Queries Level 5


Name Summary Removed
device-aspect-ratio The width-to-height aspect ratio of the output device Media Queries Level 4
device-height The height of the device’s surface that displays rendered elements Media Queries Level 4
device-width The width of the device’s surface that displays rendered elements Media Queries Level 4

Media queries support logical operators like many programming languages so that we can match media types based on certain conditions. The @media rule is itself a logical operator that is basically stating that “if” the following types and features are matches, then do some stuff.


But we can use the and operator if we want to target screens within a range of widths:

/* Matches screen between 320px AND 768px */ @media screen (min-width: 320px) and (max-width: 768px) {   .element {     /* Styles! */   } }

or (or comma-separated)

We can also comma-separate features as a way of using an or operator to match different ones:

/*    Matches screens where either the user prefers dark mode or the screen is at least 1200px wide */ @media screen (prefers-color-scheme: dark), (min-width 1200px) {   .element {     /* Styles! */   } }


Perhaps we want to target devices by what they do not support or match. This declaration removes the body’s background color when the device is a printer and can only show one color.

@media print and ( not(color) ) {   body {     background-color: none;   } }

Do you really need a media queries?

Media Queries is a powerful tool in your CSS toolbox with exciting hidden gems. But if you accomodate your design to every possible situation you’ll end up with a codebase that’s too complex to maintain and, as we all know, CSS is like a bear cub: cute and inoffensive but when it grows it will eat you alive.

That’s why I recommend following Ranald Mace’s concept of Universal Design which is “the design of products to be usable by all people, to the greatest extent possible, without the need for adaptation or specialized design.” 

On Accessibility for Everyone Laura Kalbag explains that the difference between accessible and universal design is subtle but important. An accessible designer would create a large door for people on a wheel chair to enter, while a universal designer would produce an entry that anyone would fit disregarding of their abilities.

I know that talking about universal design on the web is hard and almost sound utopian, but think about it, there are around 150 different browsers, around 50 different combinations of user preferences, and as we mentioned before more than 24000 different and unique Android devices alone. This means that there are at least 18 million possible cases in which your content might be displayed. In the words of the fantastic Miriam Suzanne “CSS out here trying to do graphic design of unknown content on an infinite and unknown canvas, across operating systems, interfaces, & languages. There’s no possible way for any of us to know what we’re doing.”

That’s why assuming is really dangerous, so when you design, develop and think about your products leave assumptions behind and use media queries to make sure that your content is displayed correctly in any contact and before any user.

Using min- and max- to match value ranges

Many of the media features outlined in the previous section — including widthheight, color and color-index — can be prefixed with min- or max- to express minimum or maximum constraints. We’ve already seen these in use throughout many of the examples, but the point is that we can create a range of value to match instead of having to declare specific values.

In the following snippet, we’re painting the body’s background purple when the viewport width is wider than 30em and narrower than 80em. If the viewport width does not match that range of values, then it will fallback to white.

body {   background-color: #fff; }  @media (min-width: 30em) and (max-width: 80em) {   body {     background-color: purple;   } }

Media Queries Level 4 specifies a new and simpler syntax using less then (>), greater than (<) and equals (=) operators. Unfortunately, at the time of writing, it isn’t supported by any major browser.

Nesting and complex decision making

CSS allows you to nest at-rules or group statements using parentheses, making it possible to go as deep as we want to evaluate complex operations.

@media (min-width: 20em), not all and (min-height: 40em) {     @media not all and (pointer: none) { ... }   @media screen and ( (min-width: 50em) and (orientation: landscape) ), print and ( not (color) ) { ... } }

Be careful! even thought it’s possible to create powerful and complex expressions, you might end up with a very opinionated, hard to maintain query. As Brad Frost puts it: “The more complex our interfaces are, the more we have to think to maintain them properly.”


Many of the features added in Media Queries Level 4 are centered around accessibility.


prefers-reduced-motion detects if the user has the reduced motion preference activated to minimize the amount of movements and animations. It takes two values:

  • no-preference: Indicates that the user has made no preference known to the system.
  • reduce: Indicates that user has notified the system that they prefer an interface that minimizes the amount of movement or animation, preferably to the point where all non-essential movement is removed.

This preference is generally used by people who suffer from vestibular disorder or vertigo, where different movements result in loss of balance, migraine, nausea or hearing loss. If you ever tried to spin quickly and got dizzy, you know what it feels like.

In a fantastic article by Eric Bailey, he suggests stopping all animations with this code:

@media screen and (prefers-reduced-motion: reduce) {     * {     /* Very short durations means JavaScript that relies on events still works */     animation-duration: 0.001ms !important;     animation-iteration-count: 1 !important;     transition-duration: 0.001ms !important;   } }

Popular frameworks like Bootstrap have this feature on by default. In my opinion there is no excuse not to use prefers-reduced-motion — just use it. 


The prefers-contrast feature informs whether the user has chosen to increase or reduce contrast in their system preferences or the browser settings. It takes three values:

  • no-preference: When a user has made no preference known to the system. If you use it as a boolean it’ll evaluate false.
  • high: When a user has selected the option to display a higher level of contrast.
  • low: When a user has selected the option to display a lower level of contrast.

At the moment of writing this feature is not supported by any browser. Microsoft has done a non-standard earlier implementation with the -ms-high-contrast feature that works only on Microsoft Edge v18 or earlier (but not Chromium-based versions).

.button {   background-color: #0958d8;   color: #fff; }  @media (prefers-contrast: high) {   .button {     background-color: #0a0db7;   } }

This example is increasing the contrast of a the class button from AA to AAA when the user has high contrast on.


The inverted-colors feature informs whether the user has chosen to invert the colors on their system preferences or the browser settings. Sometimes this option is used as an alternative to high contrast. It takes three values:

  • none: When colors are displayed normally
  • inverted: When a user has selected the option to invert colors

The problem with invested colors is that it’ll also invert the colors of images and videos, making them look like x-ray images. By using a CSS invert filter you can select all images and videos and invert them back.

@media (inverted-colors) {   img, video {      filter: invert(100%);   } }

At the time of writing this feature is only supported by Safari.


Having a “dark mode” color scheme is something we’re seeing a lot more of these days, and thanks to the prefers-color-scheme feature, we can tap into a user’s system or browser preferences to determine whether we serve a “dark” or a “light” theme based on the ir preferences.

It takes two values:

  • light: When a user has selected that they prefer a light theme or has no active preferences
  • dark: When a user has selected a dark display in their settings
body {   --bg-color: white;    --text-color: black;    background-color: var(--bg-color);   color: var(--text-color); }  @media screen and (prefers-color-scheme: light) {   body {     --bg-color: black;     --text-color:white;   } }

As Adhuham explains in the complete guide to Dark Mode there is way more to it than just changing the color of the background. Before you jump into doing dark mode remember that if you don’t have a very smart implementation strategy you might end up with a code base that’s really hard to maintain. CSS variables can do wonders for it but that’s a subject for another article.

What lies ahead?

Media Queries Level 5 is currently in Working Draft status, which means a lot can change between now and when it becomes a recommendation. But it includes interesting features that are worth mentioning because they open up new ways to target screens and adapt designs to very specific conditions.

User preference media features

Hey, we just covered these in the last section! Oh well. These features are exciting because they’re informed by a user’s actual settings, whether they are from the user agent or even at the operating system level.

Detecting a forced color palette

This is neat. Some browsers will limit the number of available colors that can be used to render styles. This is called “forced colors mode” and, if enabled in the browser settings, the user can choose a limited set of colors to use on a page. As a result, the user is able to define color combinations and contrasts that make content more comfortable to read.

The forced-colors feature allows us to detect if a forced color palette is in use with the active value. If matched, the browser must provide the required color palette through the CSS system colors. The browser is also given the leeway to determine if the background color of the page is light or dark and, if appropriate, trigger the appropriate prefers-color-scheme value so we can adjust the page.

Detecting the maximum brightness, color depth, and contrast ratio

Some devices (and browsers) are capable of super bright displays, rendering a wide range of colors, and high contrast ratios between colors. We can detect those devices using the dynamic-range feature, where the high keyword matches these devices and standard matches everything else.

We’re likely to see changes to this because, as of right now, there’s still uncertainty about what measurements constitute “high” levels of brightness and contrast. The browser may get to make that determination.

Video prefixed features

The spec talks about some screens, like TVs, that are capable of displaying video and graphics on separate “planes” which might be a way of distinguishing the video frame from other elements on the screen. As such, Media Queries Level 5 is proposing a new set of media features aimed at detecting video characteristics, including color gamut and dynamic range.

There are also proposals to detect video height, width and resolution, but the jury’s still out on whether those are the right ways to address video.

Browser support

Browsers keep evolving and since by the time you are reading this post chances are that browser support for this feature might change, please check MDN updated browser compatibility table.

A note on container queries

Wouldn’t be cool if components could adapt themselves on their own size instead of the browser’s? That’s what the concept of container queries is all about. We currently only have the browser screen to make those changes via media queries. That’s unfortunate, as the viewport isn’t always a direct relationship to how big the element itself is. Imagine a widget that renders in many different contexts on a site: sometimes in a sidebar, sometimes in a full-width footer, sometimes in a grid with unknown columns.

This is the problem that the elusive container queries idea is trying to solve. Ideally we could adapt styles of an element according to the size of itself instead of of the size of the viewport. But container queries don’t exist yet. The WICG is looking for use cases and it’s a highly requested feature. We see occasional movement, but it’s unsure if we’ll ever get it. But when we do, you can bet that it will have an impact on how we approach media queries as well.

In the meantime, you can catch up on the origin story of container queries for more context.


Let’s look at a bunch of media query examples. There are so many combinations of media types, features, and operators that the number of possibilities we could show would be exhaustive. Instead, we’ll highlight a handful based on specific media features.

Adjust layout at different viewport widths

More info

This is the probably the most widely used media feature. It informs the width of the browser’s viewport including the scrollbar. It unlocked the CSS implementation of what Ethan Marcotte famously coined responsive design: a process by which a design responds to the size of the viewport using a combination of a fluid grid, flexible images, and responsive typesetting.

Later, Luke Wroblewski evolved the concept of responsive design by introducing the term mobile-first, encouraging designers and developers to start with the small-screen experience first then progressively enhance the experience as the screen width and device capabilities expand. A mobile-first can usually be spotted by it’s use of min-width instead of max-width. If we start with min-width, we’re essentially saying, “hey, browser, start here and work up.” On the flip side, max-width is sort of like prioritizing larger screens.

One approach for defining breakpoints by width is using the dimensions of standard devices, like the exact pixel width of an iPhone. But there are many, many (many), many different phones, tables, laptops, and desktops. Looking at Android alone, there are more than 24,000 variations of viewport sizes, resolutions, operating systems, and browsers, as of August 2015. So, while targeting the precise width of a specific device might be helpful for troubleshooting or one-off fixes, it’s probably not the most robust solution for maintaining a responsive architecture. This isn’t a new idea by any stretch. Brad Frost was already preaching the virtues of letting content — not devices — determine breakpoints in his post “7 habits of highly effective media queries” published back in 2013.

And even though media queries are still a valid tool to create responsive interfaces, there are many situations where it’s possible to avoid using width at all. Modern CSS allow us to create flexible layouts with CSS grid and flex that adapts our content to the viewport size without a need to add breakpoints. For example, here is a grid layout that adapts how many columns it will have without any media queries at all.

.container {   display: grid;   grid-template-columns: repeat(auto-fill, minmax(200px, 1fr)); }

There are many articles about thinking beyond width, I wrote about it a few years ago and I recommend checking out Una Kravet’s Ten modern layouts in one line of CSS.

Dark mode

More info

This example is pulled straight from our Guide to Dark Mode on the Web. The idea is that we can detect whether a user’s system settings are configured to light or dark mode using the prefers-color-scheme feature and then define an alternate set of colors for the rendered UI.

Combining this technique with CSS custom properties makes things even easier because they act like variables that we only need to define once, then use throughout the code. Need to swap colors? Change the custom property value and it updates everywhere. That’s exactly what prefers-color-scheme does. We define a set of colors as custom properties, then redefine them inside a media query using the prefer-color-scheme feature to change colors based on the user’s settings.

Detecting orientation, hover and motion on a responsive card gallery

More info

This gallery is responsive without using the width feature.

It detects the orientation of the viewport. If it’s a portrait viewport, the sidebar will became a header; if it’s landscape it stays off to the side.

Using the pointer media feature, it decides if the main input device is coarse — like a finger — or fine — like a mouse cursor — to set the size of the clickable areas of the checkboxes.

Then, by using the hover media feature, the example checks if the device is capable of hovering (like a mouse cursor) and display a checkbox in each card.

The animations are removed when prefers-reduced-motion is set to reduce.

And did you notice something? We’re actually not using media queries for the actual layout and sizing of the cards! That’s handled using the minmax() function on the .container element to show how responsive design doesn’t always mean using media queries.

In short, this is a fully responsive app without ever measuring width or making assumptions.

Target an iPhone in landscape mode

/* iPhone X Landscape */ @media only screen    and (min-device-width: 375px)    and (max-device-width: 812px)    and (-webkit-min-device-pixel-ratio: 3)   and (orientation: landscape) {    /* Styles! */ }
More info

The orientation media feature tests whether a device is rotated the wide way (landscape) or the tall way (portrait).

While media queries are unable to know exactly which device is being used, we can use the exact dimensions of a specific device. The snippet above is targets the iPhone X.

Apply a sticky header for large viewports

More info

In the example above, we’re using height to detached fixed elements and avoid taking up too much screen real estate when the screen is too short. A horizontal navigation bar is in a fixed position when the screen is tall, but detaches itself on shorter screens.

Like the width feature, height detects the height of the viewport, including the scrollbar. Many of us browse the web on small devices with narrow viewports, making designing for different heights more relevant than ever. Anthony Colangelo describes how Apple uses the height media feature in a meaningful way to deal with the size of the hero image as the viewport’s height changes.

Responsive (fluid) typography

More info

A font can look either too big or too small, depending on the size of the screen that’s showing it. If we’re working on a small screen, then chances are that we’ll want to use smaller type than what we’d use on a much larger screen.

The idea here is that we’re using the browser’s width to scale the font size. We set a default font size on the <html> that acts as the “small” font size, then set another font size using a media query that acts as the “large” font size. In the middle? We set the font size again, but inside another media query that calculates a size based on the browser width.

The beauty of this is that it allows the font size to adjust based on the browser width, but never go above or below certain sizes. However, there is a much simpler way to go about this that requires no media queries at all, thanks to newer CSS features, like min(), max(), and clamp().

Provide bigger touch targets when devices have a course pointer

More info

Have you ever visited a site that had super tiny buttons? Some of us have fat fingers making it tough to tap an object accurately without inadvertently tapping something else instead.

Sure, we can rely on the width feature to tell if we’re dealing with a small screen, but we can also detect if the device is capable of hovering over elements. If it isn’t then it’s probably a touch device, or perhaps a device that supports both, like the Microsoft Surface.

The demo above uses checkboxes as an example. Checkboxes can be a pain to tap on when viewing them on a small screen, so we’re increasing the size and not requiring a hover if the device is incapable of hover events.

Again, this approach isn’t always accurate. Check out Patrick Lauke’s thorough article that details potential issues working with hover, pointer, any-hover and any-pointer.


Special thanks to Sarah Rambacher who helped to review this guide.

The post A Complete Guide to CSS Media Queries appeared first on CSS-Tricks.

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Working with JavaScript Media Queries

What’s the first thing that comes to mind when you think of media queries? Maybe something in a CSS file that looks like this:

body {   background-color: plum; } 
 @media (min-width: 768px) {   body {     background-color: tomato;   } }

CSS media queries are a core ingredient in any responsive design. They’re a great way to apply different styles to different contexts, whether it’s based on viewport size, motion preference, preferred color scheme, specific interactions and, heck, even certain devices like printers, TVs and projectors, among many others.

But did you know that we have media queries for JavaScript too? It’s true! We may not see them as often in JavaScript, but there definitely are use cases for them I have found helpful over the years for creating responsive plugins, like sliders. For example, at a certain resolution, you may need to re-draw and recalculate the slider items.

Working with media queries in JavaScript is very different than working with them in CSS, even though the concepts are similar: match some conditions and apply some stuff.

Using matchMedia() 

To determine if the document matches the media query string in JavaScript, we use the matchMedia() method. Even though it’s officially part of the CSS Object Model View Module specification which is in Working Draft status, the browser support for it is great going as far back as Internet Explorer 10 with 98.6% global coverage.

This browser support data is from Caniuse, which has more detail. A number indicates that browser supports the feature at that version and up.


Chrome Firefox IE Edge Safari
9 6 10 12 5.1

Mobile / Tablet

Android Chrome Android Firefox Android iOS Safari
84 79 3 5.0-5.1

The usage is nearly identical to CSS media queries. We pass the media query string to matchMedia() and then check the .matches property.

// Define the query const mediaQuery = window.matchMedia('(min-width: 768px)')

The defined media query will return a MediaQueryList object. It is an object that stores information about the media query and the key property we need is .matches. That is a read-only Boolean property that returns true if the document matches the media query.

// Create a media condition that targets viewports at least 768px wide const mediaQuery = window.matchMedia('(min-width: 768px)') 
 // Check if the media query is true if (mediaQuery.matches) {   // Then trigger an alert   alert('Media Query Matched!') }

That’s the basic usage for matching media conditions in JavaScript. We create a match condition (matchMedia()) that returns an object (MediaQueryList), check against it (.matches), then do stuff if the condition evaluates to true. Not totally unlike CSS!

But there’s more to it. For example, if we were change the window size below our target window size, nothing updates the way it will with CSS right out of the box. That’s because .matches is perfect for one-time instantaneous checks but is unable to continuously check for changes. That means we need to…

Listen for changes

 MediaQueryList has an addListener() (and the subsequent removeListener()) method that accepts a callback function (represented by the .onchange event) that’s invoked when the media query status changes. In other words, we can fire additional functions when the conditions change, allowing us to “respond” to the updated conditions.

// Create a condition that targets viewports at least 768px wide const mediaQuery = window.matchMedia('(min-width: 768px)') 
 function handleTabletChange(e) {   // Check if the media query is true   if (e.matches) {     // Then log the following message to the console     console.log('Media Query Matched!')   } } 
 // Register event listener mediaQuery.addListener(handleTabletChange)  // Initial check handleTabletChange(mediaQuery)

The one-two punch of matchMedia() and MediaQueryList gives us the same power to not only match media conditions that CSS provides, but to actively respond to updated conditions as well.

When you register an event listener with addListener() it won’t fire initially. We need to call the event handler function manually and pass the media query as the argument.

The old way of doing things

For the sake of context — and a little nostalgia — I would like to cover the old, but still popular, way of doing “media queries” in JavaScript (and, yes, those quotes are important here). The most common approach is binding a resize event listener that checks window.innerWidth or window.innerHeight.

You’ll still see something like this in the wild:

function checkMediaQuery() {   // If the inner width of the window is greater then 768px   if (window.innerWidth > 768) {     // Then log this message to the console     console.log('Media Query Matched!')   } } 
 // Add a listener for when the window resizes window.addEventListener('resize', checkMediaQuery);

Since the resize event is called on each browser resize, this is an expensive operation! Looking at the performance impact of an empty page we can see the difference.

That’s a 157% increase in scripting!

An even simpler way to see the difference is with the help of a console log.

That’s 208 resize events versus six matched media events.

Even if we look past the performance issues, resize is restrictive in the sense that it doesn’t let us write advanced media queries for things like print and orientation. So, while it does mimic “media query” behavior by allowing us to match viewport widths, it’s incapable of matching much of anything else — and we know that true media queries are capable of so much more.


That’s a look at media queries in JavaScript! We explored how matchMedia() allows us to define media conditions and examined the MediaQueryList object that lets us do one-time (.matches) and persistent (addListener()) checks against those conditions so that we can respond to changes (.onchange) by invoking functions.

We also saw the “old” way of doing things by listening for resize events on the window. While it’s still widely used and a totally legit way to respond to changes to the size of the window.innerWidth, it’s unable to perform checks on advanced media conditions.

To finish the article here is a useful example that is not achievable in the old way. Using a media query I will check if the user is in the landscape mode. This approach is common when developing HTML5 games and is best viewed on a mobile device.

The post Working with JavaScript Media Queries appeared first on CSS-Tricks.

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Beyond Media Queries: Using Newer HTML & CSS Features for Responsive Designs

Beyond using media queries and modern CSS layouts, like flexbox and grid, to create responsive websites, there are certain overlooked things we can do well to make responsive sites. In this article, we’ll dig into a number tools (revolving around HTML and CSS) we have at the ready, from responsive images to relatively new CSS functions that work naturally whether we use media queries or not.

In fact, media queries become more of a complement when used with these features rather than the full approach. Let’s see how that works.

Truly responsive images

Remember when we could just chuck width: 100% on images and call it a day? That still works, of course, and does make images squishy, but there are a number of downsides that come with it, the most notable of which include:

  • The image might squish to the extent that it loses its focal point.
  • Smaller devices still wind up downloading the full size image.

When using images on the web, we have to make sure they’re optimized in terms of their resolution and size. The reason is to ensure that we have the right image resolution to fit the right device, so we don’t end up downloading really large and heavy images for smaller screens which could end up reducing the performance of a site. 

In simple terms, we’re making sure that larger, high-resolution images are sent to larger screens, while smaller, low-resolution variations are sent to smaller screens, improving both performance and user experience.

HTML offers the <picture> element that allows us specify the exact image resource that will be rendered based on the media query we add. As described earlier, instead of having one image (usually a large, high-resolution version) sent to all screen sizes and scaling it to the viewport width, we specify a set of images to serve in specific situations.

<picture>   <source media="(max-width:1000px)" srcset="picture-lg.png">   <source media="(max-width:600px)" srcset="picture-mid.png">   <source media="(max-width:400px)" srcset="picture-sm.png">   <img src="picture.png" alt="picture""> </picture>

In this example, picture.png is the full-size image. From there, we define the next-largest version of the image, picture-lg.png, and the size reduces in descending order until the smallest version, picture-sm.png. Note that we’re still using media queries in this approach, but it’s the <picture> element itself that is driving the responsive behavior rather than defining breakpoints in the CSS.

The media queries are added appropriately to scale with the sizes of the picture:

  • Viewports that are 1000px and above get picture.png.
  • Viewports that are between 601px and 999px get picture-lg.png.
  • Viewports that are between 401px and 600px get picture-sm.png.
  • Any thing smaller than 400px gets picture-sm.png.

Interestingly, we can also label each image by image density —  1x, 2x, 3x and so forth — after the URL. This works if we have made the different images in proportion to each other (which we did). This allows the browser to determine which version to download based on the screen’s pixel density in addition to the viewport size. But note how many images we wind up defining:

<picture>   <source media="(max-width:1000px)" srcset="picture-lg_1x.png 1x, picture-lg_2x.png 2x, picture-lg_3x.png 3x">   <source media="(max-width:600px)" srcset="picture-mid_1x.png 1x, picture-mid_2x.png 2x, picture-mid_3x.png 3x">   <source media="(max-width:400px)" srcset="picture-small_1x.png 1x, picture-small_2x.png 2x, picture-small_1x.png 3x">   <img src="picture.png" alt="picture""> </picture>

Let’s look specifically at the two tags nested inside the <picture> element: <source> and <img>.

The browser will look for the first <source> element where the media query matches the current viewport width, and then it will display the proper image (specified in the srcset attribute). The <img> element is required as the last child of the <picture> element, as a fallback option if none of the initial source tags matches.

We can also use image density to handle responsive images with just the <img> element using the srcset attribute:

<img  srcset="   flower4x.png 4x,   flower3x.png 3x,   flower2x.png 2x,   flower1x.png 1x  "  src="flower-fallback.jpg" >

Another thing we can do is write media queries in the CSS based on the screen resolution (usually measured in dots per inch, or dpi) of the device itself and not just the device viewport. What this means is that instead of:

@media only screen and (max-width: 600px) {   /* Style stuff */ }

We now have:

@media only screen and (min-resolution: 192dpi) {   /* Style stuff */ }

This approach lets us dictate what image to render based the screen resolution of the device itself, which could be helpful when dealing with high resolution images. Basically, that means we can display high quality pictures for screens that support higher resolutions and smaller versions at lower resolutions. It’s worth noting that, although mobile devices have small screens, they’re usually high resolution. That means it’s probably not the best idea rely on resolution alone when determining which image to render. It could result in serving large, high-resolution images to really small screens, which may not be the version we really want to display at such a small screen size.

body {   background-image : picture-md.png; /* the default image */ } 
 @media only screen and (min-resolution: 192dpi) {   body {     background-image : picture-lg.png; /* higher resolution */   } }

What <picture> gives us is basically the ability to art direct images. And, in keeping with this idea, we can leverage CSS features, like the object-fit property which, when used with object-position, allows us to crop images for better focal points while maintaining the image’s aspect ratio.

So, to change the focal point of an image:

@media only screen and (min-resolution: 192dpi) {   body {     background-image : picture-lg.png;     object-fit: cover;     object-position: 100% 150%; /* moves focus toward the middle-right */   } }

Setting minimum and maximum values in CSS

The min() function specifies the absolute smallest size that an element can shrink to. This function proves really useful in terms of helping text sizes to properly scale across different screen sizes, like never letting fluid type to drop below a legible font size:

html {   font-size: min(1rem, 22px); /* Stays between 16px and 22px */ }

min() accepts two values, and they can be relative, percentage, or fixed units. In this example, we’re telling the browser to never let an element with class .box go below 45% width or 600px, whichever is smallest based on the viewport width:

.box {   width : min(45%, 600px) }

If 45% computes to a value smaller than 600px, the browser uses 45% as the width. Conversely, if  45% computes to a value greater than 600px, then 600px will be used for the element’s width.

The same sort of thing goes for the max() function. It also accepts two values, but rather than specifying the smallest size for an element, we’re defining the largest it can get.

.box {   width : max(60%, 600px) }

If 60% computes to a value smaller than 600px, the browser uses 60% as the width. On the flip side, if 60% computes to a value greater than 600px, then 600px will be used as the element’s width.

And, hey, we can even set a minimum and maximum range instead using the minmax() function:

.box {   width : minmax( 600px, 50% ); /* at least 600px, but never more than 50% */ }

Clamping values

Many of us have been clamoring for clamp() for some time now, and we actually have broad support across all modern browsers (sorry, Internet Explorer). clamp() is the combination of the min() and max() functions, accepting three parameters:

  1. the minimum value,
  2. the preferred value, and
  3. the maximum value

For example:

.box {   font-size : clamp(1rem, 40px, 4rem) }

The browser will set the font at 1rem until the computed value of 1rem is larger than 40px. And when the computed value is above 40px? Yep, the browser will stop increasing the size after it hits 4rem. You can see how clamp() can be used to make elements fluid without reaching for media queries.

Working with responsive units

Have you ever built a page with a large heading or sub-heading and admired how great it looked on a desktop screen, only to check it on a mobile device and find out that’s it’s too large? I have definitely been in this situation and in this section I’ll be explaining how to handle such problems.

In CSS, you can determine sizes or lengths of elements using various units of measurements, and the most used units of measurements includes: px, em, rem, %, vw, and vh. Although, there are several more units that aren’t used as frequently. What’s of interest to us is that px can be considered an absolute unit, while the rest are considered relative units.

Absolute units

A pixel (px) is considered an absolute unit mainly because it’s fixed and does not change based on the measurement of any other element. It can be considered as the base, or root, unit that some other relative units use. Trying to use pixels for responsive behavior can bump into issues because it’s fixed, but they’re great if you have elements that should not be resized at all.

Relative units

Relative units, like %, em, and rem, are better suited to responsive design mainly because of their ability to scale across different screen sizes.

vw: Relative to the viewport’s width
vh: Relative to the viewport’s height
rem: Relative to the root (<html>) element (default font-size is usually 16px )
em: Relative to the parent element
%: Relative to the parent element

Again, the default font size for most browsers is 16px and and that’s what rem units use to generate their computed values. So, if a user adjusts the font size on the browser, everything on the page scales properly depending on the root size. For example, when dealing a root set at 16px, the number you specify will multiply that number times the default size. For example:

.8rem = 12.8px (.8 * 16) 1rem = 16px (1 * 16) 2rem = 32px (2 * 16)

What if either you or the user changes the default size? As we said already, these are relative units and the final size values will be based off of the new base size. This proves useful within media queries, where you just change the font size and the entire page scales up or down accordingly.

For example, if you changed the font-size to 10px within the CSS, then the calculated sizes would end up being:

html {   font-size : 10px; }
1rem = 10px (1 * 10) 2rem = 20px (2 * 10) .5rem = 5px (.5 * 10)

Note: This also applies to percentage %. For instance:

100% = 16px; 200% = 32px;  50% = 8px;

And what’s the difference between rem and em units? It’s what the unit uses as its base element. rem calculates values using the font size of the root (<html>) element, whereas an element declaring em values references the font size of the parent element that contains it. If the size of specified parent element is different from the root element (e.g. the parent elements is 18px but the root element is 16px) then em and rem will resolve to different computed values. This gives us more fine-grained control of how our elements respond in different responsive contexts.

vh is an acronym for viewport height, or the viewable screen’s height. 100vh represent 100% of the viewport’s height (depending on the device). In the same vein, vw stands for viewport width, meaning the viewable screen’s width of the device, and 100vw literally represents 100% of the viewport’s width.

Moving beyond media queries

See that? We just looked at a number of really powerful and relatively new HTML and CSS features that give us additional (and possible more effective) ways to build for responsiveness. It’s not that these new-fangled techniques replace what we’ve been doing all along. They are merely more tools in our developer tool belt that give us greater control to determine how elements behave in different contexts. Whether it’s working with font sizes, resolutions, widths, focal points, or any number of things, we have more fine-grain control of the user experience than ever before.

So, next time you find yourself working on a project where you wish you had more control over the exact look and feel of the design on specific devices, check out what native HTML and CSS can do to help — it’s incredible how far things have come along.

The post Beyond Media Queries: Using Newer HTML & CSS Features for Responsive Designs appeared first on CSS-Tricks.

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Playing With (Fake) Container Queries With watched-box & resizeasaurus

Heydon’s <watched-box> is a damn fantastic tool. It’s a custom element that essentially does container queries by way of class names that get added to the box based on size breakpoints that are calculated with ResizeObserver. It’s like a cleaner version of what Philip was talking about a few years ago.

I’m sure I’d be happy using <watched-box> on production, as it’s lightweight, has no dependencies, and has a straightforward approach.

For development, I had the idea of using Zach’s interesting little <resize-asaurus> web component. It wraps elements in another box that is resizeable via CSS and labels it with the current width. That way you don’t have to fiddle with the entire browser window to resize things — any given element becomes resizable. Again, just for development and testing reasons.

You’d wrap them together like…

<resize-asaurus>   <watched-box widthBreaks="320px, 600px">     <div class="card">       ...      </div>   </watched-box> </resize-asaurus>

Which allows you to write CSS at breakpoints like…

.card {    .w-gt-320px { }    .w-gt-600px { }  }

That’s surely not what the CSS syntax for container queries syntax will end up being, but it accomplishes the same thing with clear and understandable generated class names.


Live demo!

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[David Baron’s] Thoughts on an implementable path forward for Container Queries

That’s the title of a public post from David Baron, a Principal Engineer at Firefox, with thoughts toward container queries. I know a lot of people have been holding their breath waiting for David’s ideas, as he’s one of few uniquely qualified to understand the ins and outs of this and speak to implementation possibility.

We’re still in the early stages of container queries. Every web designer and developer wants them, the browsers know it, but it’s a super complicated situation. It was very encouraging in February 2020 to hear positive signals about a possible switch-statement syntax that would give us access to an available-inline-size used to conditionally set individual values.

Now we’re seeing a second idea that is also in the realm of the possible.

This ideas uses an @rule instead for the syntax. From the document:

@container <selector> (<container-media-query>)? {   // ... rules ... }

So I’m imagining it like:

.parent {   contain: layout inline-size;   display: grid;   grid-template-columns: 100%;   gap: 1rem; } @container .parent (min-width: 400px) {   grid-template-columns: 1fr 1fr;    .child::before {      content: "Hello from container query land!";    } }


  1. I’m not sure if you’d have to repeat the selector inside as well? Or if dropping property/value pairs in there automatically applies to the selector in the @rule.
  2. David says “The rules can match only that container’s descendants. Probably we’d need support for some properties applying to the container itself, but others definitely can’t.” I’d hope grid properties are a strong contender for something you can change, but I have no idea. Otherwise, I think we’d see people wrapping elements with <div class="container-query"> to get around the “only descendants” limit.

Containment seems to be a very important part of this. Like if the element isn’t property contained, the container query just won’t work. I don’t know that much about containment, but Rachel has a great deep dive from late last year.

Again, this is super early days, I’m just having fun watching this and none of us really have any idea what will actually make it to browsers.

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Practice GraphQL Queries With the State of JavaScript API

Learning how to build GraphQL APIs can be quite challenging. But you can learn how to use GraphQL APIs in 10 minutes! And it so happens I’ve got the perfect API for that: the brand new, fresh-of-the-VS-Code State of JavaScript GraphQL API.

The State of JavaScript survey is an annual survey of the JavaScript landscape. We’ve been doing it for four years now, and the most recent edition reached over 20,000 developers.

We’ve always relied on Gatsby to build our showcase site, but until this year, we were feeding our data to Gatsby in the form of static YAML files generated through some kind of arcane magic known to mere mortals as “ElasticSearch.”

But since Gatsby poops out all the data sources it eats as GraphQL anyway, we though we might as well skip the middleman and feed it GraphQL directly! Yes I know, this metaphor is getting grosser by the second and I already regret it. My point is: we built an internal GraphQL API for our data, and now we’re making it available to everybody so that you too can easily exploit out dataset!

“But wait,” you say. “I’ve spent all my life studying the blade which has left me no time to learn GraphQL!” Not to worry: that’s where this article comes in.

What is GraphQL?

At its core, GraphQL is a syntax that lets you specify what data you want to receive from an API. Note that I said API, and not database. Unlike SQL, a GraphQL query does not go to your database directly but to your GraphQL API endpoint which, in turn, can connect to a database or any other data source.

The big advantage of GraphQL over older paradigms like REST is that it lets you ask for what you want. For example:

query {   user(id: "foo123") {     name   } }

Would get you a user object with a single name field. Also need the email? Just do:

query {   user(id: "foo123") {     name     email   } }

As you can see, the user field in this example supports an id argument. And now we come to the coolest feature of GraphQL, nesting:

query {   user(id: "foo123") {     name     email     posts {        title       body     }   } }

Here, we’re saying that we want to find the user’s posts, and load their title and body. The nice thing about GraphQL is that our API layer can do the work of figuring out how to fetch that extra information in that specific format since we’re not talking to the database directly, even if it’s not stored in a nested format inside our actual database.

Sebastian Scholl does a wonderful job explaining GraphQL as if you were meeting it for the first time at a cocktail mixer.

Introducing GraphiQL

Building our first query with GraphiQL, the IDE for GraphQL

GraphiQL (note the “i” in there) is the most common GraphQL IDE out there, and it’s the tool we’ll use to explore the State of JavaScript API. You can launch it right now at graphiql.stateofjs.com and it’ll automatically connect to our endpoint (which is api.stateofjs.com/graphql). The UI consists of three main elements: the Explorer panel, the Query Builder and the Results panels. We’ll later add the Docs panels to that but let’s keep it simple for now.

The Explorer tab is part of a turbo-boosted version of GraphiQL developed and maintained by OneGraph. Much thanks to them for helping us integrate it. Be sure to check out their example repo if you want to deploy your own GraphiQL instance.

Don’t worry, I’m not going to make you write any code just yet. Instead, let’s start from an existing GraphQL query, such as the one corresponding to developer experience with React over the past four years.

Remember how I said we were using GraphQL internally to build our site? Not only are we exposing the API, we’re also exposing the queries themselves. Click the little “Export” button, copy the query in the “GraphQL” tab, paste it inside GraphiQL’s query builder window, and click the “Play” button.

Source URL
The GraphQL tab in the modal that triggers when clicking Export.

If everything went according to plan, you should see your data appear in the Results panel. Let’s take a moment to analyze the query.

query react_experienceQuery {   survey(survey: js) {     tool(id: react) {       id       entity {         homepage         name         github {           url         }       }       experience {         allYears {           year           total           completion {             count             percentage           }           awarenessInterestSatisfaction {             awareness             interest             satisfaction           }           buckets {             id             count             percentage           }         }       }     }   } }

First comes the query keyword which defines the start of our GraphQL query, along with the query’s name, react_experienceQuery. Query names are optional in GraphQL, but can be useful for debugging purposes.

We then have our first field, survey, which takes a survey argument. (We also have a State of CSS survey so we needed to specify the survey in question.) We then have a tool field which takes an id argument. And everything after that is related to the API results for that specific tool. entity gives you information on the specific tool selected (e.g. React) while experience contains the actual statistical data.

Now, rather than keep going through all those fields here, I’m going to teach you a little trick: Command + click (or Control + click) any of those fields inside GraphiQL, and it will bring up the Docs panel. Congrats, you’ve just witnessed another one of GraphQL’s nifty tricks, self-documentation! You can write documentation directly into your API definition and GraphiQL will in turn make it available to end users.

Changing variables

Let’s tweak things a bit: in the Query Builder, replace “react” with “vuejs” and you should notice another cool GraphQL thing: auto-completion. This is quite helpful to avoid making mistakes or to save time! Press “Play” again and you’ll get the same data, but for Vue this time.

Using the Explorer

We’ll now unlock one more GraphQL power tool: the Explorer. The Explorer is basically a tree of your entire API that not only lets you visualize its structure, but also build queries without writing a single line of code! So, let’s try recreating our React query using the explorer this time.

First, let’s open a new browser tab and load graphiql.stateofjs.com in it to start fresh. Click the survey node in the Explorer, and under it the tool node, click “Play.” The tool’s id field should be automatically added to the results and — by the way — this is a good time to change the default argument value (“typescript”) to “react.”

Next, let’s keep drilling down. If you add entity without any subfields, you should see a little squiggly red line underneath it letting you know you need to also specify at least one or more subfields. So, let’s add id, name and homepage at a minimum. Another useful trick: you can automatically tell GraphiQL to add all of a field’s subfields by option+control-clicking it in the Explorer.

Next up is experience. Keep adding fields and subfields until you get something that approaches the query you initially copied from the State of JavaScript site. Any item you select is instantly reflected inside the Query Builder panel. There you go, you just wrote your first GraphQL query!

Filtering data

You might have noticed a purple filters item under experience. This is actually they key reason why you’d want to use our GraphQL API as opposed to simply browsing our site: any aggregation provided by the API can be filtered by a number of factors, such as the respondent’s gender, company size, salary, or country.

Expand filters and select companySize and then eq and range_more_than_1000. You’ve just calculated React’s popularity among large companies! Select range_1 instead and you can now compare it with the same datapoint among freelancers and independent developers.

It’s important to note that GraphQL only defines very low-level primitives, such as fields and arguments, so these eq, in, nin, etc., filters are not part of GraphQL itself, but simply arguments we’ve defined ourselves when setting up the API. This can be a lot of work at first, but it does give you total control over how clients can query your API.


Hopefully you’ve seen that querying a GraphQL API isn’t that big a deal, especially with awesome tools like GraphiQL to help you do it. Now sure, actually integrating GraphQL data into a real-world app is another matter, but this is mostly due to the complexity of handling data transfers between client and server. The GraphQL part itself is actually quite easy!

Whether you’re hoping to get started with GraphQL or just learn enough to query our data and come up with some amazing new insights, I hope this guide will have proven useful!

And if you’re interested in taking part in our next survey (which should be the State of CSS 2020) then be sure to sign up for our mailing list so you can be notified when we launch it.

State of JavaScript API Reference

You can find more info about the API (including links to the actual endpoint and the GitHub repo) at api.stateofjs.com.

Here’s a quick glossary of the terms used inside the State of JS API.

Top-Level Fields

  • Demographics: Regroups all demographics info such as gender, company size, salary, etc.
  • Entity: Gives access to more info about a specific “entity” (library, framework, programming language, etc.).
  • Feature: Usage data for a specific JavaScript or CSS feature.
  • Features: Same, but across a range of features.
  • Matrices: Gives access to the data used to populate our cross-referential heatmaps.
  • Opinion: Opinion data for a specific question (e.g. “Do you think JavaScript is moving in the right direction?”).
  • OtherTools: Data for the “other tools” section (text editors, browsers, bundlers, etc.).
  • Resources: Data for the “resources” section (sites, blogs, podcasts, etc.).
  • Tool: Experience data for a specific tool (library, framework, etc.).
  • Tools: Same, but across a range of tools.
  • ToolsRankings: Rankings (awareness, interest, satisfaction) across a range of tools.

Common Fields

  • Completion: Which proportion of survey respondents answered any given question.
  • Buckets: The array containing the actual data.
  • Year/allYears: Whether to get the data for a specific survey year; or an array containing all years.

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