Tag: Many

Using Dotfiles for Managing Development and Many Other Magical Things

Howdy folks! 🎉 I’m Simon Owen, and over the years, I’ve loved being a part of and learning from the dotfiles community. I spend a lot of time teaching developers and running workshops. In those sessions, demonstrating how I set up my development environment is often one of things that folks appreciated the most.

Dotfiles are a key part of my development environment. Haven’t heard of them? Well, even if you have, it’s a good idea to walk through what they are and the benefits of using them.

Last year, I set myself a goal to create a screencast series. If you like this article and want to find out more, please subscribe to the mailing list and get the download link. If you really like it, you can also 🦄 donate here! 🦄

A dot-what-file?

If you’re hearing about dotfiles for the first time, it’s totally fine to be confused about what they are and what they do. I recall that it took me a considerable amount of time before I realized a dotfile is simply a file that has a dot in front of the file name!

There are two common examples of dotfiles. First, the ones you might already be familiar with are those often found at the root of many open source projects — for example, .editorconfig contains code editor preferences to help maintain consistent coding styles for a project. You may also have seen .stylelintrc and .eslintrc floating around, which set CSS and JavaScript rules, respectively.

Second (and the ones we’re looking at today), are dotfiles that can live at the root level of a user directory (i.e. /Users/<username> ). One such dotfile is .aliases, which contains custom named commands that can speed up work in the Terminal. Another is .bash_prompt, which is used to change the $ in Terminal to something a little more fun. In my case, I set it so this dude pops up to make me smile when things get tough:

༼ つ ◕_◕ ༽つ

Hopefully, you’re already starting to get a good sense of how useful dotfiles can be. They’re sort of like hidden gems (literally, since they’re hidden from views by default) that unlock superpowers for your machine to help with development. We’re talking about automation, optimizations, and efficient workflows, among other things.

First, I want to give props to the dotfiles community

Before we dig into dotfiles, it’s worth calling out how great the community behind them is. When I first forked Paul Irish’s dotfile repo, there was a lot going on in there I didn’t understand. Mathias Bynens and Paul Irish helped me immensely by answering questions about the code and it was their willingness to help that served as one of the reasons I became drawn to both the concept and the community.

Sometimes, I’ll post something to the community that I’d like to automate, but can’t figure it out for the life of me. And, without fail, I’ll get a helpful reply. Case in point: Eric Czarny wrote an app for me to automate my Spectacle settings and Mathias also contributed a code snippet. How cool is that?!

Then there are things like macOS updates. The dotfiles community is often on top of this and provide useful advice on GitHub comments regarding anything that no longer works or other useful information. You can then amend your dotfiles accordingly, such as adding the following code that increases the sound quality for Bluetooth headphones/headsets:

defaults write com.apple.BluetoothAudioAgent "Apple Bitpool Min (editable)" -int 40

Digging into dotfiles

The code example above might look a bit familiar to you. It’s along the same lines as this often-used one to show hidden files:

defaults write com.apple.finder AppleShowAllFiles -bool true

…or this one to add spaces to the dock:

defaults write com.apple.dock persistent-apps -array-add '{"tile-type"="spacer-tile";}'; killall Dock

These commands can be pasted directly into the Terminal. As you might expect, something like -bool true will change a boolean value from false to true and reset the command for later use.

If you’e like me and have a lot of these commands, then this is where the .macos (previously .osx) dotfile becomes especially useful. Instead of copying and pasting each command individually, we can automate and run all of them in one go.

Let’s walk through some examples

There are so many awesome things we can do in dotfiles. Here are some practical use cases that I rely on for my day-to-day work.

Setting aliases for default commands (.aliases)

Navigating between directories in the Terminal can be cumbersome and it’s easy to get lost in cd madness.

We can replace the standard “change directory” (cd) command with a custom command in the .aliases dotfile. For example, use this alias to ditch the cd prefix altogether when using the command cd .. to move up a directory in favor of .. by itself.

alias ..="cd .."

Sure, it’s only dropping two letters, but how much easier is that to remember?

An animated screenshot of a Terminal window typing two periods instead of the full cd command to move up a level in the directory.

We can do the same thing to make shortcuts to certain directories:

alias dl="cd ~/Downloads"

Or, create aliases for shorthand command tasks:

alias hs="hexo serve"
An animated screenshot of a Terminal window typing a command called hs instead of typing out hexo serve in full.

Oh, here’s another one! List only directories:

alias lsd="ls -lF $ {colorflag} | grep --color=never '^d'"

Make a custom bash prompt for a personal touch to the Terminal (.bash_prompt)

I referenced this a little earlier, but here’s how I turned my bash prompt ($ ) into a little dude that’s way more fun to look at it. This is done directly in the .bash_prompt dotfile.

PS1="༼ つ ◕_◕ ༽つ"

Create Git shortcuts to speed up commits (.gitconfig)

We can make it a little more efficient to commit all changes at once in the .gitconfig dotfile. Using ca is a lot more concise than !git add -A && git commit -av .

ca = !git add -A && git commit -av

Another handy shortcut: find commits by commit message.

fm = "!f() { git log --pretty=format:'%C(yellow)%h  %Cblue%ad  %Creset%s%Cgreen  [%cn] %Cred%d' --decorate --date=short --grep=$ 1; }; f"

Automate common Homebrew tasks (brew.sh)

Use Homebrew for package management? Although not strictly a dotfile (it doesn’t have a dot before the file name), Homebrew gives us the brew.sh shell script file. This file automates the installation and management of Apps and Tools:

brew install git brew install tree brew cask install google-chrome brew cask install iterm2 brew cask install sublime-text

Protect your Git credentials (.extra)

Hide information you don’t want to share publicly in one file in a private repo and bring it in for you alone. For example, a good idea for this file is anything that’s specific to you, such as your Git credentials. This will prevent people from cloning, running your dotfiles, then committing as you!

# Git credentials # Not in the repository, to prevent people from accidentally committing under my name GIT_AUTHOR_NAME="Simon Owen" GIT_COMMITTER_NAME="$ GIT_AUTHOR_NAME" git config --global user.name "$ GIT_AUTHOR_NAME" GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL="<ADD-YOUR-EMAIL-HERE>" GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL="$ GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL" git config --global user.email "$ GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL"

Write custom functions for tasks (.functions)

Dotfiles are more than shortcuts and aliases. We can also make custom functions in .functions that do more advanced lifting. For example, create a new directory and change directory to it:

function mkd() {   mkdir -p "$ @" && cd "$ _"; }
An animated screenshot of a Terminal window typing mkd new to trigger the creation of a new folder and navigating to it.

Or, we can open a given location in Finder with a one-letter command (o):

function o() {   if [ $ #-eq 0 ]; then     open .;   else     open "$ @";   fi; }

Specify your $ PATH and keep private (.path)

$ PATH allows the running of executable files. Instead of navigating to each path manually in Terminal, here we can set the file paths so they can run the executable files directly. It might be the case that this file contains sensitive information. As such, this file is often kept in a private repo.

Here’s an example adding ~/utils to the $ PATH:

export PATH="$ HOME/utils:$ PATH"

Force Vim to use a particular theme (.vimrc)

Editor config files are great for ensuring consistent formatting across projects, but we can also tell a Vim editor to use a specific theme in a .vimrc file:

" Use the Solarized Dark theme set background=dark colorscheme solarized let g:solarized_termtrans=1

Bonus: Helpful Terminal recipes for macOS

OK, so here’s a little bit of a bonus for Mac users that isn’t related to dotfiles, but are things we can do in the Terminal to give macOS superpowers to do pretty awesome things that make day-to-day use a little easier and more pleasant.

First off, we can show hidden files by default in the Finder so dotfiles are visible all the time by typing this into the Terminal:

defaults write com.apple.finder AppleShowAllFiles -bool true

Find the way that scrollbars toggle on and off in Finder jarring? Let’s make them visible at all times:

defaults write NSGlobalDomain AppleShowScrollBars -string "Always"

By default, macOS checks for software updates once per week. But maybe we want to check once a day or at some other interval:

defaults write com.apple.SoftwareUpdate ScheduleFrequency -int 1

You know how holding down on a keyboard key repeats that character? Well, it repeats at a determined speed that we can supercharge to blazingly fast:

defaults write NSGlobalDomain KeyRepeat -int 0

Some people love the way macOS includes a box shadow when taking a screenshot of a window. Others don’t. Here’s how to turn it off:

defaults write com.apple.screencapture disable-shadow -bool true

And, in this example, we can automate the size of icons in the Dock:

defaults write com.apple.dock tilesize -int 36

This is only the tip of the iceberg! In my screencast series I go over more than one hundred of them.

Conclusion

Web development is increasingly more complicated as time goes on. We all have ways of making our development workflow a little easier and comfortable based on personal preferences.

You may be a seasoned developer and aware of such things as Node, npm, and Git but still find yourself stuck in a Terminal window with a bunch of errors. Or, you might be starting out and find these, and other tools, complex and tough to grasp.

Either way, hopefully knowing more about dotfiles and what they’re capable of doing gives you a new weapon in your arsenal to make your development environment tailored to you, speed up your workflow and give your machine added superpowers!

As a reminder, my screencast series will give you more tips and tricks, plus a good idea of how to get your development environment set up. This is the first in the series. Going forwards, I’m going to look at expanding on it, so please let me know if there’s anything else you’d like me to cover!

The post Using Dotfiles for Managing Development and Many Other Magical Things appeared first on CSS-Tricks.

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The Many Ways to Change an SVG Fill on Hover (and When to Use Them)

SVG is a great format for icons. Vector formats look crisp and razor sharp, no matter the size or device — and we get tons of design control when using them inline.

SVG also gives us another powerful feature: the ability to manipulate their properties with CSS. As a result, we can make quick and simple interactions where it used to take crafty CSS tricks or swapping out entire image files.

Those interactions include changing color on hover states. It sounds like such a straightforward thing here in 2019, but there are actually a few totally valid ways to go about it — which only demonstrates the awesome powers of SVG more.

First off, let’s begin with a little abbreviated SVG markup:

<svg class="icon">   <path .../> </svg>

Target the .icon class in CSS and set the SVG fill property on the hover state to swap colors.

.icon:hover {   fill: #DA4567; }

This is by far the easiest way to apply a colored hover state to an SVG. Three lines of code!

SVGs can also be referenced using an <img> tag or as a background image. This allows the images to be cached and we can avoid bloating your HTML with chunks of SVG code. But the downside is a big one: we no longer have the ability to manipulate those properties using CSS. Whenever I come across non-inline icons, my first port of call is to inline them, but sometimes that’s not an option.

I was recently working on a project where the social icons were a component in a pattern library that everyone was happy with. In this case, the icons were being referenced from an <img> element. I was tasked with applying colored :focus and :hover styles, without adjusting the markup.

So, how do you go about adding a colored hover effect to an icon if it’s not an inline SVG?

CSS Filters

CSS filters allow us to apply a whole bunch of cool, Photoshop-esque effects right in the browser. Filters are applied to the element after the browser renders layout and initial paint, which means they fall back gracefully. They apply to the whole element, including children. Think of a filter as a lens laid over the top of the element it’s applied to.

These are the CSS filters available to us:

  • brightness(<number-percentage>);
  • contrast(<number-percentage>);
  • grayscale(<number-percentage>);
  • invert(<number-percentage>);
  • opacity(<number-percentage>);
  • saturate(<number-percentage>);
  • sepia(<number-percentage>);
  • hue-rotate(<angle>);
  • blur(<length>);
  • drop-shadow(<length><color>);

All filters take a value which can be changed to adjust the effect. In most cases, this value can be expressed in either a decimal or percent units (e.g. brightness(0.5) or brightness(50%)).

Straight out of the box, there’s no CSS filter that allows us to add our own specific color.
We have hue-rotate(), but that only adjusts an existing color; it doesn’t add a color, which is no good since we’re starting with a monochromatic icon.

The game-changing bit about CSS filters is that we don’t have to use them in isolation. Multiple filters can be applied to an element by space-separating the filter functions like this:

.icon:hover {   filter: grayscale(100%) sepia(100%); }

If one of the filter functions doesn’t exist, or has an incorrect value, the whole list is ignored and no filter will be applied to the element.

When applying multiple filter functions to an element, their order is important and will affect the final output. Each filter function will be applied to the result of the previous operation.

So, in order to colorize our icons, we have to find the right combination.

To make use of hue-rotate(), we need to start off with a colored icon. The sepia() filter is the only filter function that allows us to add a color, giving the filtered element a yellow-brown-y tinge, like an old photo.

The output color is dependent on the starting tonal value:

In order to add enough color with sepia(), we first need to use invert() to convert our icon to a medium grey:

.icon:hover {   filter: invert(0.5) }

We can then add the yellow/brown tone with sepia():

.icon:hover {   filter: invert(0.5) sepia(1); }

…then change the hue with hue-rotate():

.icon:hover {   filter: invert(0.5) sepia(1) hue-rotate(200deg);                                   }

Once we have the rough color we want, we can tweak it with saturation() and brightness():

.icon:hover {   filter:      invert(0.5)     sepia(1)     hue-rotate(200deg)     saturate(4)     brightness(1); }

I’ve made a little tool for this to make your life a little easier, as this is a pretty confusing process to guesstimate.

See the Pen CSS filter example by Cassie Evans (@cassie-codes)
on CodePen.

Even with the tool, it’s still a little fiddly, not supported by Internet Explorer, and most importantly, you’re unable to specify a precise color.

This browser support data is from Caniuse, which has more detail. A number indicates that browser supports the feature at that version and up.

Desktop

Chrome Opera Firefox IE Edge Safari
18* 15* 35 No 18 6*

Mobile / Tablet

iOS Safari Opera Mobile Opera Mini Android Android Chrome Android Firefox
6.0-6.1* 46 No 4.4* 71 64

So, what do we do if we need a specific hex code?

SVG Filters

If we need more precise control (and better browser support) than CSS filters can offer, then it’s time to turn to SVG.

Filters originally came from SVG. In fact, under the hood, CSS filters are just shortcuts to SVG filters with a particular set of values baked in.

Unlike CSS, the filter isn’t predefined for us, so we have to create it. How do we do this?

This is the syntax to define a filter:

<svg xmlns="<http://www.w3.org/2000/svg>" version="1.1">   <defs>     <filter id="id-of-your-filter">       ...                        ...     </filter>     ...   </defs> </svg>

Filters are defined by a <filter> element, which goes inside the <defs> section of an SVG.

SVG filters can be applied to SVG content within the same SVG document. Or, the filter can be referenced and applied to HTML content elsewhere.

To apply an SVG filter to HTML content, we reference it the same way as a CSS filter: by using the url() filter function. The URL points to the ID of the SVG filter.

.icon:hover {   filter: url('#id-of-your-filter'); }

The SVG filter can be placed inline in the document or the filter function can reference an external SVG. I prefer the latter route as it allows me to keep my SVG filters tidied away in an assets folder.

.icon:hover {   filter: url('assets/your-SVG.svg#id-of-your-filter'); }

Back to the <filter> element itself.

<filter id="id-of-your-filter">   ...                ... </filter>

Right now, this filter is empty and won’t do anything as we haven’t defined a filter primitive. Filter primitives are what create the filter effects. There are a number of filter primitives available to us, including:

  • [<feBlend>]
  • [<feColorMatrix>]
  • [<feComponentTransfer>]
  • [<feComposite>]
  • [<feConvolveMatrix>]
  • [<feDiffuseLighting>]
  • [<feDisplacementMap>]
  • [<feDropShadow>]
  • [<feFlood>]
  • [<feGaussianBlur>]
  • [<feImage>]
  • [<feMerge>]
  • [<feMorphology>]
  • [<feOffset>]
  • [<feSpecularLighting>]
  • [<feTile>]
  • [<feTurbulence>]

Just like with CSS filters, we can use them on their own or include multiple filter primitives in the <filter> tag for more interesting effects. If more than one filter primitive is used, then each operation will build on top of the previous one.

For our purposes we’re just going to use feColorMatrix, but if you want to know more about SVG filters, you can check out the specs on MDN or this (in progress, at the time of this writing) article series that Sara Soueidan has kicked off.

feColourMatrix allows us to change color values on a per-channel basis, much like channel mixing in Photoshop.

This is what the syntax looks like:

<svg xmlns="<http://www.w3.org/2000/svg>" version="1.1">   <defs>     <filter id="id-of-your-filter">       <feColorMatrix         color-interpolation-filters="sRGB"         type="matrix"         values="1 0 0 0 0                 0 1 0 0 0                 0 0 1 0 0                 0 0 0 1 0 "/>     </filter>     ...   </defs> </svg>

Let’s have a closer look at the color matrix values.

The first four columns represent the red, green and blue channels of color and the alpha (opacity) value. The rows contain the red, green, blue and alpha values in those channels.

The M column is a multiplier — we don’t need to change any of these values for our purposes here. The values for each color channel are represented as floating point numbers in the range 0 to 1.

We could write these values as a CSS RGBA color declaration like this:

rgba(255, 255, 255, 1)

The values for each color channel (red, green and blue) are stored as integers in the range 0 to 255. In computers, this is the range that one 8-bit byte can offer.

By dividing these color channel values by 255, the values can be represented as a floating point number which we can use in the feColorMatrix.

And, by doing this, we can create a color filter for any color with an RGB value!

Like teal, for example:

rgba(0, 128, 128, 1). 128%255=0.50

See the Pen
SVG filter – teal hover
by Cassie Evans (@cassie-codes)
on CodePen.

This SVG filter will only impart color to icons with a white fill, so If we have an icon with a black fill, we can use invert() to convert it to white before applying the SVG filter.

.icon:hover {   filter: invert(100%) url('assets/your-SVG.svg#id-of-your-filter'); }

If we just have a hex code, the math is a little trickier, although there are plenty of hex-to-RGBA converters out there. To help out, I’ve made a HEX to feColorMatrix converter.

See the Pen
HEX to feColorMatrix converterr
by Cassie Evans (@cassie-codes)
on CodePen.

Have a play around, and happy filtering!

The post The Many Ways to Change an SVG Fill on Hover (and When to Use Them) appeared first on CSS-Tricks.

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