Tag: Learning

CSS in 3D: Learning to Think in Cubes Instead of Boxes

My path to learning CSS was a little unorthodox. I didn’t start as a front-end developer. I was a Java developer. In fact, my earliest recollections of CSS were picking colors for things in Visual Studio.

It wasn’t until later that I got to tackle and find my love for the front end. And exploring CSS came later. When it did, it was around the time CSS3 was taking off. 3D and animation were the cool kids on the block. They almost shaped my learning of CSS. They drew me in and shaped (pun intended) my understanding of CSS more than other things, like layout, color, etc.

What I’m getting at is I’ve been doing the whole 3D CSS thing a minute. And as with anything you spend a lot of time with, you end up refining your process over the years as you hone that skill. This article is a look at how I’m currently approaching 3D CSS and goes over some tips and tricks that might help you!

Everything’s a cuboid

For most things, we can use a cuboid. We can create more complex shapes, for sure but they usually take a little more consideration. Curves are particularly hard and there are some tricks for handling them (but more on that later).

We aren’t going to walk through how to make a cuboid in CSS. We can reference Ana Tudor’s post for that, or check out this screencast of me making one:

At its core, we use one element to wrap our cuboid and then transform six elements within. Each element acts as a side to our cuboid. It’s important that we apply transform-style: preserve-3d. And it’s not a bad idea to apply it everywhere. It’s likely we’ll deal with nested cuboids when things get more complex. Trying to debug a missing transform-style while hopping between browsers can be painful.

* { transform-style: preserve-3d; }

For your 3D creations that are more than a few faces, try and imagine the whole scene built from cuboids. For a real example, consider this demo of a 3D book. It’s four cuboids. One for each cover, one for the spine, and one for the pages. The use of background-image does the rest for us.

Setting a scene

We’re going to use cuboids like LEGO pieces. But, we can make our lives a little easier by setting a scene and creating a plane. That plane is where our creation will sit and makes it easier for us to rotate and move the whole creation.

For me, when I create a scene, I like to rotate it on the X and Y axis first. Then I lay it flat with rotateX(90deg). That way, when I want to add a new cuboid to the scene, I add it inside the plane element. Another thing I will do here is to set position: absolute on all cuboids.

.plane {   transform: rotateX(calc(var(--rotate-x, -24) * 1deg)) rotateY(calc(var(--rotate-y, -24) * 1deg)) rotateX(90deg) translate3d(0, 0, 0); }

Start with a boilerplate

Creating cuboids of various sizes and across a plane makes for a lot of repetition for each creation. For this reason, I use Pug to create my cuboids via a mixin. If you’re not familiar with Pug, I wrote a 5-minute intro.

A typical scene looks like this:

//- Front //- Back //- Right //- Left //- Top //- Bottom mixin cuboid(className)   .cuboid(class=className)     - let s = 0     while s < 6       .cuboid__side       - s++ .scene   //- Plane that all the 3D stuff sits on   .plane     +cuboid('first-cuboid')

As for the CSS. My cuboid class is currently looking like this:

.cuboid {   // Defaults   --width: 15;   --height: 10;   --depth: 4;   height: calc(var(--depth) * 1vmin);   width: calc(var(--width) * 1vmin);   transform-style: preserve-3d;   position: absolute;   font-size: 1rem;   transform: translate3d(0, 0, 5vmin); } .cuboid > div:nth-of-type(1) {   height: calc(var(--height) * 1vmin);   width: 100%;   transform-origin: 50% 50%;   position: absolute;   top: 50%;   left: 50%;   transform: translate(-50%, -50%) rotateX(-90deg) translate3d(0, 0, calc((var(--depth) / 2) * 1vmin)); } .cuboid > div:nth-of-type(2) {   height: calc(var(--height) * 1vmin);   width: 100%;   transform-origin: 50% 50%;   transform: translate(-50%, -50%) rotateX(-90deg) rotateY(180deg) translate3d(0, 0, calc((var(--depth) / 2) * 1vmin));   position: absolute;   top: 50%;   left: 50%; } .cuboid > div:nth-of-type(3) {   height: calc(var(--height) * 1vmin);   width: calc(var(--depth) * 1vmin);   transform: translate(-50%, -50%) rotateX(-90deg) rotateY(90deg) translate3d(0, 0, calc((var(--width) / 2) * 1vmin));   position: absolute;   top: 50%;   left: 50%; } .cuboid > div:nth-of-type(4) {   height: calc(var(--height) * 1vmin);   width: calc(var(--depth) * 1vmin);   transform: translate(-50%, -50%) rotateX(-90deg) rotateY(-90deg) translate3d(0, 0, calc((var(--width) / 2) * 1vmin));   position: absolute;   top: 50%;   left: 50%; } .cuboid > div:nth-of-type(5) {   height: calc(var(--depth) * 1vmin);   width: calc(var(--width) * 1vmin);   transform: translate(-50%, -50%) translate3d(0, 0, calc((var(--height) / 2) * 1vmin));   position: absolute;   top: 50%;   left: 50%; } .cuboid > div:nth-of-type(6) {   height: calc(var(--depth) * 1vmin);   width: calc(var(--width) * 1vmin);   transform: translate(-50%, -50%) translate3d(0, 0, calc((var(--height) / 2) * -1vmin)) rotateX(180deg);   position: absolute;   top: 50%;   left: 50%; }

Which, by default, gives me something like this:

Powered by CSS variables

You may have noticed a fair few CSS variables (aka custom properties) in there. This is a big time-saver. I’m powering my cuboids with CSS variables.

  • --width: The width of a cuboid on the plane
  • --height: The height of a cuboid on the plane
  • --depth: The depth of a cuboid on the plane
  • --x: The X position on the plane
  • --y: The Y position on the plane

I use vmin mostly as my sizing unit to keep everything responsive. If I’m creating something to scale, I might create a responsive unit. We mentioned this technique in a previous article. Again, I lay the plane down flat. Now I can refer to my cuboids as having height, width, and depth. This demo shows how we can move a cuboid around the plane changing its dimensions.

Debugging with dat.GUI

You might have noticed that little panel in the top right for some of the demos we’ve covered. That’s dat.GUI. It’s a lightweight controller library for JavaScript that super useful for debugging 3D CSS. With not much code, we can set up a panel that allows us to change CSS variables at runtime. One thing I like to do is use the panel to rotate the plane on the X and Y-axis. That way, it’s possible to see how things are lining up or work on a part that you might not see at first.

 const {   dat: { GUI }, } = window const CONTROLLER = new GUI() const CONFIG = {   'cuboid-height': 10,   'cuboid-width': 10,   'cuboid-depth': 10,   x: 5,   y: 5,   z: 5,   'rotate-cuboid-x': 0,   'rotate-cuboid-y': 0,   'rotate-cuboid-z': 0, } const UPDATE = () => {   Object.entries(CONFIG).forEach(([key, value]) => {     document.documentElement.style.setProperty(`--$  {key}`, value)   }) } const CUBOID_FOLDER = CONTROLLER.addFolder('Cuboid') CUBOID_FOLDER.add(CONFIG, 'cuboid-height', 1, 20, 0.1)   .name('Height (vmin)')   .onChange(UPDATE) CUBOID_FOLDER.add(CONFIG, 'cuboid-width', 1, 20, 0.1)   .name('Width (vmin)')   .onChange(UPDATE) CUBOID_FOLDER.add(CONFIG, 'cuboid-depth', 1, 20, 0.1)   .name('Depth (vmin)')   .onChange(UPDATE) // You have a choice at this point. Use x||y on the plane // Or, use standard transform with vmin. CUBOID_FOLDER.add(CONFIG, 'x', 0, 40, 0.1)   .name('X (vmin)')   .onChange(UPDATE) CUBOID_FOLDER.add(CONFIG, 'y', 0, 40, 0.1)   .name('Y (vmin)')   .onChange(UPDATE) CUBOID_FOLDER.add(CONFIG, 'z', -25, 25, 0.1)   .name('Z (vmin)')   .onChange(UPDATE) CUBOID_FOLDER.add(CONFIG, 'rotate-cuboid-x', 0, 360, 1)   .name('Rotate X (deg)')   .onChange(UPDATE) CUBOID_FOLDER.add(CONFIG, 'rotate-cuboid-y', 0, 360, 1)   .name('Rotate Y (deg)')   .onChange(UPDATE) CUBOID_FOLDER.add(CONFIG, 'rotate-cuboid-z', 0, 360, 1)   .name('Rotate Z (deg)')   .onChange(UPDATE) UPDATE()

If you watch the timelapse video in this tweet. You’ll notice that I rotate the plane a lot as I build up the scene.

That dat.GUI code is a little repetitive. We can create functions that will take a configuration and generate the controller. It takes a little tinkering to cater to your needs. I started playing with dynamically generated controllers in this demo.

Centering

You may have noticed that by default each cuboid is half under and half above the plane. That’s intentional. It’s also something I only recently started to do. Why? Because we want to use the containing element of our cuboids as the center of the cuboid. This makes animation easier. Especially, if we’re considering rotating around the Z-axis. I found this out when creating “CSS is Cake”. After making the cake, I then decided I wanted each slice to be interactive. I then had to go back and change my implementation to fix the rotation center of the flipping slice.

Here I’ve broken that demo down to show the centers and how having an offset center would affect the demo.

Positioning

If we are working with a scene that’s more complex, we may split it up into different sections. This is where the concept of sub-planes comes in handy. Consider this demo where I’ve recreated my personal workspace.

There’s quite a bit going on here and it’s hard to keep track of all the cuboids. For that, we can introduce sub-planes. Let’s break down that demo. The chair has its own sub-plane. This makes it easier to move it around the scene and rotate it — among other things — without affecting anything else. In fact, we can even spin the top without moving the feet!

Aesthetics

Once we’ve got a structure, it’s time to work on the aesthetics. This all depends on what you’re making. But you can get some quick wins from using certain techniques. I tend to start by making things “ugly” then go back and make CSS variables for all the colors and apply them. Three shades for a certain thing allows us to differentiate the sides of a cuboid visually. Consider this toaster example. Three shades cover the sides of the toaster:

Our Pug mixin from earlier allows us to define class names for a cuboid. Applying color to a side usually looks something like this:

/* The front face uses a linear-gradient to apply the shimmer effect */ .toaster__body > div:nth-of-type(1) {   background: linear-gradient(120deg, transparent 10%, var(--shine) 10% 20%, transparent 20% 25%, var(--shine) 25% 30%, transparent 30%), var(--shade-one); } .toaster__body > div:nth-of-type(2) {   background: var(--shade-one); } .toaster__body > div:nth-of-type(3), .toaster__body > div:nth-of-type(4) {   background: var(--shade-three); } .toaster__body > div:nth-of-type(5), .toaster__body > div:nth-of-type(6) {   background: var(--shade-two); }

It’s a little tricky to include extra elements with our Pug mixin. But let’s not forget, every side to our cuboid offers two pseudo-elements. We can use these for various details. For example, the toaster slot and the slot for the handle on the side are pseudo-elements.

Another trick is to use background-image for adding details. For example, consider the 3D workspace. We can use background layers to create shading. We can use actual images to create textured surfaces. The flooring and the rug are a repeating background-image. In fact, using a pseudo-element for textures is great because then we can transform them if needed, like rotating a tiled image. I’ve also found that I get flickering in some cases working directly with a cuboid side.

One issue with using an image for texture is how we create different shades. We need shades to differentiate the different sides. That’s where the filter property can help. Applying a brightness``() filter to the different sides of a cuboid can lighten or darken them. Consider this CSS flipping table. All the surfaces are using a texture image. But to differentiate the sides, brightness filters are applied.

Smoke and mirrors perspective

How about shapes — or features we want to create that seem impossible — using a finite set of elements? Sometimes we can trick the eye with a little smoke and mirrors. We can provide a “faux” like sense of 3D. The Zdog library does this well and is a good example of this.

Consider this bundle of balloons. The strings holding them use the correct perspective and each has its own rotation, tilt, etc. But the balloons themselves are flat. If we rotate the plane, the balloons maintain the counter plane rotation. And this gives that “faux” 3D impression. Try out the demo and switch off the countering.

Sometimes it takes a little out-of-the-box thinking. I had a house plant suggested to me as I built the 3D workspace. I have a few in the room. My initial thought was, “No, I can make a square pot, and how would I make all the leaves?” Well actually, we can use some eye tricks on this one too. Grab a stock image of some leaves or a plant. Remove the background with a tool like remove.bg. Then position many images in the same spot but rotate them each a certain amount. Now, when they’re rotated, we get the impression of a 3D plant.

Tackling awkward shapes

Awkward shapes are tough to cover in a generic way. Every creation has its own hurdles. But, there is a couple of examples that could help give you ideas for tackling things. I recently read an article about the UX of LEGO interface panels. In fact, approaching 3D CSS work like it’s a LEGO set isn’t a bad idea. But the LEGO interface panel is a shape we could make with CSS (minus the studs — I only recently learned this is what they are called). It’s a cuboid to start with. Then we can clip the top face, make the end face transparent, and rotate a pseudo-element to join it up. We can use the pseudo-element for adding the details with some background layers. Try turning the wireframe on and off in the demo below. If we want the exact heights and angles for the faces, we can use some math to workout the hypoteneuse etc.

Another awkward thing to cover is curves. Spherical shapes are not in the CSS wheelhouse. We have various options at this point. One option is to embrace that fact and create polygons with a finite number of sides. Another is to create rounded shapes and use the rotation method we mentioned with the plant. Each of these options could work. But again, it’s on a use case basis. Each has pros and cons. With the polygon, we surrender the curves or use so many elements that we get an almost curve. The latter could result in performance issues. With the perspective trick, we may also end up with performance issues depending. We also surrender being able to style the “sides” of the shape as there aren’t any.

Z fighting

Last, but not least, it’s worth mentioning “Z-fighting.” This is where certain elements on a plane may overlap or cause an undesirable flicker. It’s hard to give good examples of this. There’s not a generic solution for it. It’s something to tackle on a case-by-case basis. The main strategy is to order things in the DOM as appropriate. But sometimes that’s not the only issue.

Being accurate can sometimes cause issues. Let’s refer to the 3D workspace again. Consider the canvas on the wall. The shadow is a pseudo-element. If we place the canvas exactly against the wall, we are going to hit issues. If we do that, the shadow and the wall are going to fight for the front position. To combat this, we can translate things by a slight amount. That will solve the issue and declare what should sit in front.

Try resizing this demo with the “Canvas offset” on and off. Notice how the shadow flickers when there is no offset? That’s because the shadow and the wall are fighting for view. The offset sets the --x to a fraction of 1vmin that we’ve named --cm. That’s a responsive unit being used for that creation.

That’s “it”!

Take your CSS to another dimension. Use some of my tips, create your own, share them, and share your 3D creations! Yes, making 3D things in CSS can be tough and is definitely a process that we can refine as we go along. Different approaches work for different people and patience is a required ingredient. I’m interested to see where you take your approach!

The most important thing? Have fun with it!


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Layoutit Grid: Learning CSS Grid Visually With a Generator

Layoutit Grid is an interactive open source CSS Grid generator. It lets you draw your designs and see the code as you go. You can interact with the code, add or remove track lines and drag them around to change the sizing — and you get to see the CSS and HTML change in real time!

Animated gif of the tool which is split into three columns: one that sets the number of grid rows and columns, one to name and visualize the layout, and the last to see the code.
Add some tracks and see how they’re made in CSS

When you are done with a layout, you can create a CodePen or grab the code to jumpstart your next project. The tool brings the code to the forefront, helping you learn CSS grid as you work directly with it.

CSS Grid is a whole new way of thinking about layouts

We can now create robust responsive layouts for our web experiences. We can finally learn to design with a coherent set of layout tools instead of memorizing piles of hacks to force elements into position.

Now, I’m not saying a generator like this excuses us from knowing the code we write. We should all learn how CSS Grid and Flexbox work. Even if your stronghold is JavaScript, having a solid foundation in CSS knowledge is a powerful ally when communicating your ideas. When sharing a prototype for a component, a UX interaction, or even an algorithm in an online sandbox, the way in which your work is presented can make a big the difference. The ability to develop proper layouts — and define the styles that create them — is fundamental.

Crafting layouts in CSS should not be a daunting task. CSS Grid is actually quite fun to use! For example, using named grid areas feels like an ASCII art version of drawing a design on a piece of paper. Lets create the layout of a photos app, a feed of pics and the people in them side by side for its main content and the typical header, footer and a config sidebar.

.photos-app {   /* For our app layout, lets place things in a grid */   display: grid;   /* We want 3 columns and 3 rows, and these are the responsive      track sizes using `fr` (fraction of the remaining space) */   grid-template-columns: 20% 1fr 1fr;   grid-template-rows: 0.5fr 1.7fr 0.3fr;   /* Let's separate our tracks a bit */   gap: 1em;   /* We now have 3x3 cells, here is where each section is placed */   grid-template-areas:     "header header header"  /* a header stretching in the top row */     "config photos people"  /* a left sidebar, and our app content */     "footer footer footer"; /* and a footer along the bottom row  */ } 
 .the-header {   /* In each section, let's define the name we use to refence the area */   grid-area: "header"; }

This is just a small subset of what you can build with CSS Grid. The spec is quite flexible. Areas can also be placed directly using line numbers or names, or they can be placed implicitly by the browser, with the content distributed inside the grid automatically. And the spec continues to grow with additions, like subgrid.

At the same time, working with grids can be difficult, just like anything that requires a new way of thinking. It takes a lot of time to wrap our heads around this sort of thing. And one way to help do that is to…

Learn while playing

When you are learning CSS Grid, it is easy to feel intimidated by its notation and semantics. Until you develop some muscle memory for it, kickstarting the learning process with visual and interactive tools can be an excellent way to overcome that early trepidation. A lot of us have used generators while learning how to create shadows, gradients, Markdown tables, and so on. Generators, if built with care, are great learning aids.

Let’s use Layoutit Grid to recreate the same design in our example.

Generators like this aren’t meant to be leaned on forever; they’re a stepping stone. This particular one helps you experience the power of CSS Grid by materializing your designs in a few clicks along with the code to make it happen. This gives you the early wins that you need to push forward with the learning process. For some of us, generators permanently remain in our toolboxes. Not because we do not know how to craft the layouts by hand, but because having the visual feedback loop help us to quickly convert our ideas into code. So we keep playing with them.

Sarah Drasner has also created a CSS Grid generator that’s worth checking out as well.

Learn by building

Leniolabs recently open-sourced Layoutit Grid and added new features, like interactive code views, area edition, history and offline support. And there are several more in the making.

If you have ideas to improve the tool, get in touch! Open an issue and let’s discuss it on GitHub. Going into meta territory, you can also learn about the CSS Grid spec by helping us build the tool. 

We use the app to keep track of best practices in creating performant interactive web experiences. It is now powered by the newly released Vue 3 using <script setup> components and built with Vite, a new dev tool that doesn’t bundle the app while developing, which gives us instant feedback during development. If you are curious and want to build with us, fork the repo and let’s learn together!


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Our Learning Partner: Frontend Masters

I’d like to think there is a lot to learn on CSS-Tricks. But we don’t really offer much by the way of courses. You’re probably reading this because you just generally read this site, and you land on CSS-Tricks otherwise mostly because you are looking for an answer to some front-end question.

Courses are a really great way to learn though. I’ve done many over my years as a developer, particularly when learning something fairly outside my bubble of things I already know. For example, I don’t reach for TypeScript yet because I don’t really know it and am definitely not comfortable with it. You better believe I’ll be taking a course on it when the time comes that I want to use it on a project.

Where will I find that course? Frontend masters, of course. They are clearly the most high-quality in-depth courses on all things front-end development. They’ve got a course on TypeScript, of course.

So I’m so so glad to announce that Frontend Masters is our official learning partner. I like having an official place to send people to when it’s clear their learning style is video courses, like so many people’s is.

One not-so-little aspect I love about Frontend Masters: the courses are taught in a live environment. So it’s not a head talking into a screen, the courses have the natural energy of a live teaching situation, because they are.

How you’ll see our course recommendations here on CSS-Tricks is through some contextual ads next to articles. Say you’re reading Geoff’s recent article about the dense keyword as part of CSS grid layout. Well, that article is about layout, and Frontend Masters has a comprehensive course on modern CSS layout from Jen Kramer. So as you scroll down that post, you’ll see our course recommendation there, as well as at the bottom of the article.

Try it free

Access to all of Frontend Masters is a paid membership. Access to literally everything they have is $ 39 a month or $ 390 a year, with special pricing for teams. But, they have some free stuff if you want to dip your toes and see for yourself if it’s any good.

On-the-go

I feel like this is worth mentioning too. Frontend Masters itself is a website you log into to watch the videos and that’s a great experience. But it’s not the only way. They also have great native mobile apps (iOS / Android), if you prefer that experience.

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Learning to Learn

There’s been a lot of talk recently about whether or not you need a degree to be in tech (spoiler: you don’t). But please don’t take this to mean you don’t need any kind of education to be in tech, because by not getting a degree, you’re opting to replace the imposed learning structure of an academy with learning on your own.

Academic background or not, technical education doesn’t stop once you get a job. On the contrary: nothing in tech stays in one place, and the single most valuable skill you can possess to remain employable over time is learning how to learn.

Identifying holes

You’re all ready to go, ready to challenge yourself, learn what you can, and grow. But where do you start? Sometimes people rely on a more formal education simply because someone is there, guiding your path.

When you’re learning on your own, this part can sometimes be tough — you don’t know what you don’t know. If you’re starting from scratch, learning web development or computer science, here are some resources that might help:

There are also times when you know what you need to learn, but you have to level up. In this case, I have some strategies on how to organize yourself in the next section.

Possible strategies

You absolutely do not to be as formal in your approach to learning as I am. I used to be a college professor, and so I still organize my own learning as though I’m teaching. I even still use a paper planner designed for teachers. I’ll show you how I do it in case it’s helpful. A few years back I taught myself ES2015/ES6, so I’ll use that as an example. Structure like this is good for some and not good for others, so do what works for you.

If there’s an API I’m trying to learn, I’ll go to the main documentation page (if there is one), and list each of the things I’m trying to learn. Then I’ll divide the sections into what I think are manageable chunks, and spread the sections over my schedule, usually shooting for about a half hour a day. I do this with the understanding that some days I won’t find the time, and others, I’ll dig in for longer. Typically I aim for at least 2.5 hours of learning a week, because that pace seems reasonable to me.

ES2015 main
The list of ES2015 features I used when I was learning

Then I take all of those features, write them out, and estimate how much time I’ll need for each one. Here’s an example where I wrote out all the things I needed to learn. The yellow numbers on the side are my time estimates in half hour units.

checklist of ES6 features

You can also do this with course materials from an online workshop, writing down the sections and breaking them into chunks to go over every day. I really enjoy Frontend Masters for long form learning like this, as well as Egghead and courses by Wes Bos.

At this point, I’ll break those pieces down and schedule them. The teacher planner allows me to divide my days into the different themes I’m focusing on and put a little in each day. You can see in the first screenshot that I was learning a bit, mentoring a bit, and writing and building what I was learning each day. This kind of input/output really helped me solidify the concepts as I was digging into ES2015/ES6.

example of scheduling by theme, subjects broken down by day
example of scheduling by theme, subjects broken down by day

I try not to schedule too far out because I’m bound to drop something here and there, or I might dive further one day than I was planning to. I keep the schedules flexible enough to adjust for these inevitable inconsistencies. This also allows me to not get too demotivated. If I feel I’m off-track, the next week is another opportunity to get back on.

Again, you don’t have to be as formal as I am, and there are so many ways to be effective. Find what works for you. I would make a small suggestion that you’re taking a look at the table of contents for those API docs now and again, mostly because then you’re aware of any gaps in your knowledge that you’re not filling.

Setting aside time

Setting aside time can be challenging with all of our busy schedules, but it’s critical. If you look at your week, how much time do you have? Learning won’t happen unless you purposefully devote time for it. It needn’t be a ton of time. If you’re a more habit-driven kind of person, you can set up a daily schedule. If you’re the kind of person who learns better head down and you have an existing job, then you might have to give up some Sunday afternoons, or possibly some time after work now and again. Most of us need a bit of both. ☺️

If you’re socially motivated, you might want to find a study buddy. Is there someone at work who has similar goals? Maybe going to coding meetups can help keep you on track. Emma Wedekind also builds Coding Coach, where you can have guided mentorship sessions.

Practice

At the end of the day, it’s going to come down to practice. If you read about Cognitive Load Theory (I highly recommend the book Cognitive Load Theory if you want to learn about this), you’ll see that the old “practice makes perfect” adage has some bite to it.

diagram showing that practice helps us store long term ideas
Information Processing Model (how we learn) – Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin’s cognitive load theory, 1968.

I also really like this quote from Zed Shaw’s Learn Python the Hard Way.

Do Not Copy-Paste
You must type each of these exercises in, manually. If you copy and paste, you might as well just not even do them. The point of these exercises is to train your hands, your brain, and your mind in how to read, write, and see code. If you copy-paste, you are cheating yourself out of the effectiveness of the lessons.

I also love this quote from Art and Fear, and bring it up frequently as it’s been a guiding light for me:

The ceramics teacher announced on opening day that he was dividing the class into two groups. All those on the left side of the studio, he said, would be graded solely on the quantity of work they produced, all those on the right solely on its quality. His procedure was simple: on the final day of class he would bring in his bathroom scales and weigh the work of the “quantity” group: fifty pounds of pots rated an “A”, forty pounds a “B”, and so on. Those being graded on “quality”, however, needed to produce only one pot —albeit a perfect one —to get an “A”. Well, came grading time and a curious fact emerged: the works of highest quality were all produced by the group being graded for quantity. It seems that while the “quantity” group was busily churning out piles of work—and learning from their mistakes —the “quality” group had sat theorizing about perfection, and in the end had little more to show for their efforts than grandiose theories and a pile of dead clay.

Learning modalities

Truly there are many different learning modalities, and combining them can even be helpful. Sometimes I will sit and practice refactoring code from other languages into JavaScript (this is a pretty old project now), or reverse engineer things to learn. I like reverse engineering because people tend to problem-solve in different ways. This allows me to peek inside other people’s heads and see how they approach things. I even have a private collection on CodePen where I collect other people’s work that I think can benefit me and my learning.

Personally, I think there’s nothing more motivating than building. You can actually learn a metric ton just by building things.

Storytime: Many years ago, I was at a conference with a few people who worked on the SVG spec, including the inventor of SVG himself. I was completely unknown at the time, but had been churning out tons of SVG animations that were wildly unpopular for a few years. We got on the subject of a certain behavior that was in the spec. I mentioned, that yes, it should work that way but unfortunately Firefox had x behavior and Chrome had y.

No one in the group knew this, and it was the first time I realized that all those silly playful things I was building were actually educating me; that I knew practical, real-life edge cases even though I hadn’t sought them out in a formal manner. I was so excited! I didn’t plan to become an SVG expert — it snuck up on me as I enjoyed myself, building things to relieve stress and play.

This is good news! You can learn so much by creating things you think are fun. I like to learn for a bit, and then practice what I learned by making something, just to make sure I solidify the concepts.

You may find you learn the most by teaching. If you do have a person you can mentor, it can actually benefit you, too. Writing technical posts or helping with documentation can help you learn something concretely as well.

Cognitive Load Theory

The book I cited earlier, Cognitive Load Theory, has this great section breaking down learning modalities and what they require. A central theme to the book is discussing moving information from a source into our own minds, and that there are certain capabilities and limitations affected by design characteristics of the learning structure and our own cognition.

  • Intrinsic load is created by the difficulty of the materials.
  • Extraneous load is created by the design characteristics of the type of education and materials.
  • Germane load is the amount of invested mental effort.

The chart below explores effects of different ways that we learn, and what the primary cognitive load would be of the three listed above.

table of human cognition and learning modalities
From Cognitive Load Theory

This kind of meta-understanding of what it takes to learn might be helpful to you in that you might find you have less cognitive load in one learning modality versus another. You may also find that you can cut yourself some slack when one topic with more germane load takes you longer to understand than another that’s mostly memorization.

Know that learning styles do affect our ability to comprehend things, and reducing barriers for yourself is key. Do you keep studying at a cafe where there’s a lot of noise and distraction? Consider that your lack of focus might have more to do with the setting than your ability to process the materials.

One more note on this: learning is hard, and it’s humbling. It’s exciting too, but please don’t feel alone if you struggle, or if you need to repeat something multiple times to really get it. Even after taking care of cognitive leaks, expanding knowledge is not necessarily easy, but does pay off in dividends.

Lifelong learners

By choosing to be a developer, you are choosing to learn. This is amazing. Our field not only values our knowledge, but we can stave off boredom because it doesn’t stagnate. My suggestion is to consider these tips a buffet table. There’s so much you can do, so many tools you can use. You don’t need to learn everything and no one knows absolutely everything. It can feel overwhelming, but try to view it less like a race to the finish and more like a continuous journey.

Remember: no one was born knowing any of this. Even the experts you know started at zero. There’s nothing stopping you from becoming their peer if that’s your goal. Or simply learning enough to get the job done if that’s what you need.

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The Secret Weapon to Learning CSS

For some reason, I’ve lately been thinking a lot about what it takes to break into the web design industry and learn CSS. I reckon it has something to do with Keith Grant’s post earlier this month on a CSS mental model where he talks about a “common core for CSS”:

We need common core tricks like this for CSS. Not “tricks” in the old sense (like how to fake a gradient border), but mental patterns: ways to frame the problem in our heads, so we can break problems into their constituent parts and notice recurring patterns. Those of us who deeply understand the language do this internally. We need to start working on distilling out these mental patterns we use for understanding layout and positioning and working with relative units, so that we can articulate them to others.

On this note, Rachel Andrew also wrote about how to learn CSS, but in this case, she focuses more on technical CSS specifics:

For much of CSS, you don’t need to worry about learning properties and values by heart. You can look them up when you need them. However, there are some key underpinnings of the language, without which you will struggle to make sense of it. It really is worth dedicating some time to making sure you understand these things, as it will save you a lot of time and frustration in the long run.

This ties in nicely with Andy Bell’s “CSS doesn’t suck” argument. Andy says that perhaps the reason why people attack CSS so often is because they simply don’t fundamentally understand it and thereby don’t respect why it works the way it does:

It’s getting exhausting spending so much of my time defending one of the three pillars of the web: CSS. It should sit equal with HTML and JavaScript to produce accessible, progressively enhanced websites and web apps that help everyone achieve what they need to achieve.

As I read these and other posts, I couldn’t stop thinking about the advice that I would give to a fledgling developer who’s interested in web design and CSS—where would I recommend that they start? There’s so much to cover that merely thinking about it gives me a headache.


Personally, I often start with the basics of HTML and slowly introduce folks to CSS properties like color or font-family. But this sort of advice is generally only useful if you’re sitting right next to someone and have the time to explain everything about HTML and CSS: how to lay out a page, how to handle performance, how to think about progressive enhancement, etc. These topics alone are worthy of a month-long workshop—and that’s only the beginning!

Where to get started then? What sort of advice would help a student in the long run?


My experience in the industry probably matches that of a lot of other web designers: I didn’t go to school for this. I figured things out by myself while using referential sites like CSS-Tricks and Smashing Magazine to fill in the gaps. I would start with a project (like making a website for my high school band—and no, I will tell you the name of it), and in the process, I would haphazardly learn about typesetting, Sass, build tools, as well as accessible, hand-written markup.

Hear me out, but I don’t think the best way to get started in the web design industry is to learn the latest doodad or widget. Yes, you’ll have to get to that eventually. Or maybe not. At some point, getting a firm handle on flexbox and grid and memorizing a few properties is a good thing to do. But I want to teach web designers to fish and make sure that they can set themselves up for the future. And the best way to fish for CSS probably won’t be found in a particular book or classroom curriculum. Instead, I think it’s best to recommend something else entirely.

My advice can be summarized in just four words: Get an RSS reader.

After thinking about this, I figured out that the most useful advice I can give is to get involved with the community—and, for me, that has been via RSS. Find a ton of blogs and subscribe to them. Over time, you’ll not only learn about the craft, but have a hefty (and hopefully organized) set of resources that cover basics, tricks, standards, personal struggles, and news, among many, many other things.


This is still how I learn about web design today. RSS is the most important tool I have to help me continue learning about the web—from working with tiny CSS properties to giant frameworks. Sure, Twitter is a good place to learn from (and even connect with) heavy hitters in the web design industry quickly, but there’s no better technology than RSS to constantly keep yourself informed of how people are thinking about CSS and web development.

With that, I encourage you (yes, you) to get an RSS reader if you don’t already have one, or dust off the one you do have if it’s been a while. I use Reeder 3 on OSX and iOS and pair that with Feedbin. From there, subscribe to a ton of blogs or follow a lot of folks on Twitter to find their websites. There’s no shortage of material or sources out there!

This sounds like a silly thing to recommend but fitting yourself into the web design community is more important than learning about any cool CSS trick. You’ll be creating an environment where you can constantly learn new things for the future. And I promise that, once you start, finding people who care about web development and, ultimately, learning about CSS, isn’t as intimidating as it could be on your own.


Which websites should you subscribe to? Well, Stuart Robson made a wonderful list of all the websites that he subscribes to via RSS—you should be able to download that file and drop it straight into your RSS reader. Also, Rachel Andrew made a great list of websites a while back when she asked what’s happening in CSS? And of course our very own newsletter, This Week in Web Design and Development, is certainly a good place to start, too. Speaking of email and newsletters—Dev Tips by Umar Hansa is another great resource where I’m constantly learning new things about Chrome’s DevTools.

What websites do you like though? What’s the best resource for keeping up with CSS? Let us know in the comments below!

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