Tag: Global

Weekly Platform News: Focus Rings, Donut Scope, Ditching em Units, and Global Privacy Control

In this week’s news, Chrome tackles focus rings, we learn how to get “donut” scope, Global Privacy Control gets big-name adoption, it’s time to ditch pixels in media queries, and a snippet that prevents annoying form validation styling.

Chrome will stop displaying focus rings when clicking buttons

Chrome, Edge, and other Chromium-based browsers display a focus indicator (a.k.a. focus ring) when the user clicks or taps a (styled) button. For comparison, Safari and Firefox don’t display a focus indicator when a button is clicked or tapped, but do only when the button is focused via the keyboard.

The focus ring will stay on the button until the user clicks somewhere else on the page.

Some developers find this behavior annoying and are using various workarounds to prevent the focus ring from appearing when a button is clicked or tapped. For example, the popular what-input library continuously tracks the user’s input method (mouse, keyboard or touch), allowing the page to suppress focus rings specifically for mouse clicks.

[data-whatintent="mouse"] :focus {   outline: none; }

A more recent workaround was enabled by the addition of the CSS :focus-visible pseudo-class to Chromium a few months ago. In the current version of Chrome, clicking or tapping a button invokes the button’s :focus state but not its :focus-visible state. that way, the page can use a suitable selector to suppress focus rings for clicks and taps without affecting keyboard users.

:focus:not(:focus-visible) {   outline: none; }

Fortunately, these workarounds will soon become unnecessary. Chromium’s user agent stylesheet recently switched from :focus to :focus-visible, and as a result of this change, button clicks and taps no longer invoke focus rings. The new behavior will first ship in Chrome 90 next month.

The enhanced CSS :not() selector enables “donut scope”

I recently wrote about the A:not(B *) selector pattern that allows authors to select all A elements that are not descendants of a B element. This pattern can be expanded to A B:not(C *) to create a “donut scope.”

For example, the selector article p:not(blockquote *) matches all <p> elements that are descendants of an <article> element but not descendants of a <blockquote> element. In other words, it selects all paragraphs in an article except the ones that are in a block quotation.

The donut shape that gives this scope its name

The New York Times now honors Global Privacy Control

Announced last October, Global Privacy Control (GPC) is a new privacy signal for the web that is designed to be legally enforceable. Essentially, it’s an HTTP Sec-GPC: 1 request header that tells websites that the user does not want their personal data to be shared or sold.

The DuckDuckGo Privacy Essentials extension enables GPC by default in the browser

The New York Times has become the first major publisher to honor GPC. A number of other publishers, including The Washington Post and Automattic (WordPress.com), have committed to honoring it “this coming quarter.”

From NYT’s privacy page:

Does The Times support the Global Privacy Control (GPC)?

Yes. When we detect a GPC signal from a reader’s browser where GDPR, CCPA or a similar privacy law applies, we stop sharing the reader’s personal data online with other companies (except with our service providers).

The case for em-based media queries

Some browsers allow the user to increase the default font size in the browser’s settings. Unfortunately, this user preference has no effect on websites that set their font sizes in pixels (e.g., font-size: 20px). In part for this reason, some websites (including CSS-Tricks) instead use font-relative units, such as em and rem, which do respond to the user’s font size preference.

Ideally, a website that uses font-relative units for font-size should also use em values in media queries (e.g., min-width: 80em instead of min-width: 1280px). Otherwise, the site’s responsive layout may not always work as expected.

For example, CSS-Tricks switches from a two-column to a one-column layout on narrow viewports to prevent the article’s lines from becoming too short. However, if the user increases the default font size in the browser to 24px, the text on the page will become larger (as it should) but the page layout will not change, resulting in extremely short lines at certain viewport widths.

If you’d like to try out em-based media queries on your website, there is a PostCSS plugin that automatically converts min-width, max-width, min-height, and max-height media queries from px to em.

(via Nick Gard)

A new push to bring CSS :user-invalid to browsers

In 2017, Peter-Paul Koch published a series of three articles about native form validation on the web. Part 1 points out the problems with the widely supported CSS :invalid pseudo-class:

  • The validity of <input> elements is re-evaluated on every key stroke, so a form field can become :invalid while the user is still typing the value.
  • If a form field is required (<input required>), it will become :invalid immediately on page load.

Both of these behaviors are potentially confusing (and annoying), so websites cannot rely solely on the :invalid selector to indicate that a value entered by the user is not valid. However, there is the option to combine :invalid with :not(:focus) and even :not(:placeholder-shown) to ensure that the page’s “invalid” styles do not apply to the <input> until the user has finished entering the value and moved focus to another element.

The CSS Selectors module defines a :user-invalid pseudo-class that avoids the problems of :invalid by only matching an <input> “after the user has significantly interacted with it.”

Firefox already supports this functionality via the :-moz-ui-invalid pseudo-class (see it in action). Mozilla now intends to un-prefix this pseudo-class and ship it under the standard :user-invalid name. There are still no signals from other browser vendors, but the Chromium and WebKit bugs for this feature have been filed.


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Global and Component Style Settings with CSS Variables

The title of this Sara Soueidan article speaks to me. I’m a big fan of the idea that some CSS is best applied globally, and some CSS is best applied scoped to a component. I’m less interested in how that is done and more interested in just seeing that conceptual approach used in some fashion.

Sara details an approach where components don’t have too much styling by default, but have CSS custom properties applied to them that are ready to take values should you choose to set them.

For each pattern, I’ve found myself modifying the same properties whenever I needed to use it — like the font, colors (text, background, border), box shadow, spacing, etc. So I figured it would be useful and time-saving if I created variables for those properties, define those variables in the ‘root’ of the component, and ‘pass in’ the values for these variables when I use the pattern as I need. This way I can customize or theme the component by changing the property values in one rule set, instead of having to jump between multiple ones to do so.

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Global CSS options with custom properties

With a preprocessor, like Sass, building a logical “do this or don’t” setting is fairly straightforward:

$  option: false;  @mixin doThing {   @if $  option {     do-thing: yep;   } }  .el {   @include doThing; }

Can we do that in native CSS with custom properties? Mark Otto shows that we can. It’s just a smidge different.

html {   --component-shadow: 0 .5rem 1rem rgba(0,0,0,.1); }  .component {   box-shadow: var(--component-shadow); }  <!-- override the global anywhere more specific! like      <div class="component remove-shadow">      or      <body class="remove-shadow"> --> .remove-shadow {   --component-shadow: none; }

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Weekly Platform News: HTML Inspection in Search Console, Global Scope of Scripts, Babel env Adds defaults Query

In this week’s look around the world of web platform news, Google Search Console makes it easier to view crawled markup, we learn that custom properties aren’t computing hogs, variables defined at the top-level in JavaScript are global to other page scripts, and Babel env now supports the defaults query — plus all of last month’s news compiled into a single package for you.

Easier HTML inspection in Google Search Console

The URL Inspection tool in Google Search Console now includes useful controls for searching within and copying the HTML code of the crawled page.

Note: The URL Inspection tool provides information about Google’s indexed version of a specific page. You can access Google Search Console at https://search.google.com/search-console.

(via Barry Schwartz)

CSS properties are computed once per element

The value of a CSS custom property is computed once per element. If you define a custom property --func on the <html> element that uses the value of another custom property --val, then re-defining the value of --val on a nested DOM element that uses --func won’t have any effect because the inherited value of --func is already computed.

html {   --angle: 90deg;   --gradient: linear-gradient(var(--angle), blue, red); }  header {   --angle: 270deg; /* ignored */   background-image: var(--gradient); /* inherited value */ }

(via Miriam Suzanne)

The global scope of scripts

JavaScript variables created via let, const, or class declarations at the top level of a script (<script> element) continue to be defined in subsequent scripts included in the page.

Note:Axel Rauschmayer calls this the global scope of scripts.”)

(via Surma)

Babel env now supports the defaults query

Babel’s env preset (@babel/preset-env) now allows you to target browserslist’s default browsers (which are listed at browsersl.ist). Note that if you don’t specify your target browsers, Babel env will run every syntax transform on your code.

{   "presets": [     [       "@babel/preset-env",       {         "targets": { "browsers": "defaults" }       }     ]   ] }

(via Nicolò Ribaudo)

All the June 2019 news that’s fit to… print

For your convenience, I have compiled all 59 news items that I’ve published throughout June into one 10-page PDF document.

Download PDF

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Regarding CSS’s Global Scope

html {   font-family: Roboto, sans-serif; }

With the except of some form elements, you’ve just set a font on every bit of text on a site! Nice! That’s probably what you were trying to do, because of the probably hundreds of elements all over your site, setting that font-family every time would be tedious and error-prone.

CSS is global by nature. On purpose!

I like how David Khourshid put it:

You ever stop and think about why CSS has a global scope? Maybe we want to use consistent typography, colors, sizing, spacing, layout, transitions, etc. and have our websites & apps feel like one cohesive unit?

Love the cascade, the cascade is your friend.

And yet. The global nature of CSS is perhaps the most-pointed-at anti-feature of CSS. Some people really don’t like it. We all know it’s very easy to write a single CSS rule that has implications all over a site, breaking things you really didn’t want to break.

There are whole new categories of testing to assist with these problems.

Scoped styles aren’t the only reason there is such interest and adoption in the landscape of tools that is CSS-in-JS, but it’s a big one. There are loads of sites that don’t directly author any CSS at all — even preprocessed styles — and go for a JavaScript library instead where styles are authored quite literally in JavaScript. There is a playground demonstrating the syntax of the various options. Here’s how styled-components works:

import React from 'react'; import styled from 'styled-components';  const Container = styled.main`   display: flex;   flex-direction: column;   min-height: 100%;   width: 100%;   background-color: #f6f9fc; `;  export default function Login() {   return (     <Container>       ... Some stuff ....     </Container>   ); }

There are literally dozens of options, each doing things a bit differently while offering slightly different syntaxes and features. Vue even offers scoped CSS directly in .vue files:

<style scoped> .example {   color: red; } </style>  <template>   <div class="example">hi</div> </template>

Unfortunately, <style scoped> never quite made it as a native web platform feature. There is shadow DOM, though, where a style block can be injected in a template and those styles will be isolated from the rest of the page:

let myElement = document.querySelector('.my-element');  let shadow = myElement.attachShadow({   mode: 'closed' }); shadow.innerHTML = `   <style>     p {        color: red;     }   </style>    <p>Element with Shadow DOM</p> `;

No styles will leak into or out of that shadow DOM boundary. That’s pretty cool for people seeking this kind of isolation, but it could be tricky. You’d likely have to architect the CSS to have certain global styles that can be imported with the shadow DOM’d web component so it can achieve some styling cohesion in your site. Personally, I wish it was possible to make the shadow DOM one-way permeable: styles can leak in, but styles defined inside can’t leak out.

CSS-in-JS stuff is only one way to scope styles. There are actually two sides to the spectrum. You could call CSS-in-JS total isolation, whereas you could author CSS directly with total abstraction:

Total abstraction might come from a project, like Tachyons, that gives you a fixed set of class names to use for styling (Tailwind is like a configurable version of that), or a programmatic tool (like Atomizer) that turns specially named HTML class attributes into a stylesheet with exactly what it needs.

Even adhering 100% to BEM across your entire site could be considered total CSS isolation, solving the problems that the global scope may bring.

Personally, I’d like to see us move to this kind of future:

When we write styles, we will always make a choice. Is this a global style? Am I, on purpose, leaking this style across the entire site? Or, am I writing CSS that is specific to this component? CSS will be split in half between these two. Component-specific styles will be scoped and bundled with the component and used as needed.

Best of both worlds, that.

Anyway, it’s tricky.

Maybe this will be the hottest CSS topic in 2019.

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