Forms that Move With You with Wufoo

I’ve been into the idea of JAMstack lately. In fact, it was at the inaugural JAMstack_conf that I gave a talked called The All-Powerful Font-End Developer. My overall point there was that there are all these services that we can leverage as front-end developers to build complete websites without needing much help from other disciplines — if any at all.

Sometimes, the services we reach for these days are modern and fancy, like a real-time database solution with authentication capabilities. And sometimes those services help process forms. Speaking of which, a big thanks to Wufoo for so successfully being there for us front-end developers for so many years. Wufoo was one of my first tastes of being a powerful front-end developer. I can build and design a complex form super fast on Wufoo and integrate it onto any site in minutes. I’ve done it literally hundreds of times, including here on CSS-Tricks.

Another thing that I love about building Wufoo forms is that they travel so well. I use them all the time on my WordPress sites because I can copy and paste the embed code right onto any page. But say I moved that site off of traditional WordPress and onto something more JAMstacky (maybe even a static site that hits the WordPress API, whatevs). I could still simply embed my Wufoo form. A Wufoo form can literally be put on any type of site, which is awesome since you lose no data and don’t change the experience at all when making a big move.

And, just in case you didn’t know, Wufoo has robust read and write APIs, so Wufoo really can come with you wherever you go.

Try it Now

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The Many Ways to Change an SVG Fill on Hover (and When to Use Them)

SVG is a great format for icons. Vector formats look crisp and razor sharp, no matter the size or device — and we get tons of design control when using them inline.

SVG also gives us another powerful feature: the ability to manipulate their properties with CSS. As a result, we can make quick and simple interactions where it used to take crafty CSS tricks or swapping out entire image files.

Those interactions include changing color on hover states. It sounds like such a straightforward thing here in 2019, but there are actually a few totally valid ways to go about it — which only demonstrates the awesome powers of SVG more.

First off, let’s begin with a little abbreviated SVG markup:

<svg class="icon">   <path .../> </svg>

Target the .icon class in CSS and set the SVG fill property on the hover state to swap colors.

.icon:hover {   fill: #DA4567; }

This is by far the easiest way to apply a colored hover state to an SVG. Three lines of code!

SVGs can also be referenced using an <img> tag or as a background image. This allows the images to be cached and we can avoid bloating your HTML with chunks of SVG code. But the downside is a big one: we no longer have the ability to manipulate those properties using CSS. Whenever I come across non-inline icons, my first port of call is to inline them, but sometimes that’s not an option.

I was recently working on a project where the social icons were a component in a pattern library that everyone was happy with. In this case, the icons were being referenced from an <img> element. I was tasked with applying colored :focus and :hover styles, without adjusting the markup.

So, how do you go about adding a colored hover effect to an icon if it’s not an inline SVG?

CSS Filters

CSS filters allow us to apply a whole bunch of cool, Photoshop-esque effects right in the browser. Filters are applied to the element after the browser renders layout and initial paint, which means they fall back gracefully. They apply to the whole element, including children. Think of a filter as a lens laid over the top of the element it’s applied to.

These are the CSS filters available to us:

  • brightness(<number-percentage>);
  • contrast(<number-percentage>);
  • grayscale(<number-percentage>);
  • invert(<number-percentage>);
  • opacity(<number-percentage>);
  • saturate(<number-percentage>);
  • sepia(<number-percentage>);
  • hue-rotate(<angle>);
  • blur(<length>);
  • drop-shadow(<length><color>);

All filters take a value which can be changed to adjust the effect. In most cases, this value can be expressed in either a decimal or percent units (e.g. brightness(0.5) or brightness(50%)).

Straight out of the box, there’s no CSS filter that allows us to add our own specific color.
We have hue-rotate(), but that only adjusts an existing color; it doesn’t add a color, which is no good since we’re starting with a monochromatic icon.

The game-changing bit about CSS filters is that we don’t have to use them in isolation. Multiple filters can be applied to an element by space-separating the filter functions like this:

.icon:hover {   filter: grayscale(100%) sepia(100%); }

If one of the filter functions doesn’t exist, or has an incorrect value, the whole list is ignored and no filter will be applied to the element.

When applying multiple filter functions to an element, their order is important and will affect the final output. Each filter function will be applied to the result of the previous operation.

So, in order to colorize our icons, we have to find the right combination.

To make use of hue-rotate(), we need to start off with a colored icon. The sepia() filter is the only filter function that allows us to add a color, giving the filtered element a yellow-brown-y tinge, like an old photo.

The output color is dependent on the starting tonal value:

In order to add enough color with sepia(), we first need to use invert() to convert our icon to a medium grey:

.icon:hover {   filter: invert(0.5) }

We can then add the yellow/brown tone with sepia():

.icon:hover {   filter: invert(0.5) sepia(1); }

…then change the hue with hue-rotate():

.icon:hover {   filter: invert(0.5) sepia(1) hue-rotate(200deg);                                   }

Once we have the rough color we want, we can tweak it with saturation() and brightness():

.icon:hover {   filter:      invert(0.5)     sepia(1)     hue-rotate(200deg)     saturate(4)     brightness(1); }

I’ve made a little tool for this to make your life a little easier, as this is a pretty confusing process to guesstimate.

See the Pen CSS filter example by Cassie Evans (@cassie-codes)
on CodePen.

Even with the tool, it’s still a little fiddly, not supported by Internet Explorer, and most importantly, you’re unable to specify a precise color.

This browser support data is from Caniuse, which has more detail. A number indicates that browser supports the feature at that version and up.

Desktop

Chrome Opera Firefox IE Edge Safari
18* 15* 35 No 18 6*

Mobile / Tablet

iOS Safari Opera Mobile Opera Mini Android Android Chrome Android Firefox
6.0-6.1* 46 No 4.4* 71 64

So, what do we do if we need a specific hex code?

SVG Filters

If we need more precise control (and better browser support) than CSS filters can offer, then it’s time to turn to SVG.

Filters originally came from SVG. In fact, under the hood, CSS filters are just shortcuts to SVG filters with a particular set of values baked in.

Unlike CSS, the filter isn’t predefined for us, so we have to create it. How do we do this?

This is the syntax to define a filter:

<svg xmlns="<http://www.w3.org/2000/svg>" version="1.1">   <defs>     <filter id="id-of-your-filter">       ...                        ...     </filter>     ...   </defs> </svg>

Filters are defined by a <filter> element, which goes inside the <defs> section of an SVG.

SVG filters can be applied to SVG content within the same SVG document. Or, the filter can be referenced and applied to HTML content elsewhere.

To apply an SVG filter to HTML content, we reference it the same way as a CSS filter: by using the url() filter function. The URL points to the ID of the SVG filter.

.icon:hover {   filter: url('#id-of-your-filter'); }

The SVG filter can be placed inline in the document or the filter function can reference an external SVG. I prefer the latter route as it allows me to keep my SVG filters tidied away in an assets folder.

.icon:hover {   filter: url('assets/your-SVG.svg#id-of-your-filter'); }

Back to the <filter> element itself.

<filter id="id-of-your-filter">   ...                ... </filter>

Right now, this filter is empty and won’t do anything as we haven’t defined a filter primitive. Filter primitives are what create the filter effects. There are a number of filter primitives available to us, including:

  • [<feBlend>]
  • [<feColorMatrix>]
  • [<feComponentTransfer>]
  • [<feComposite>]
  • [<feConvolveMatrix>]
  • [<feDiffuseLighting>]
  • [<feDisplacementMap>]
  • [<feDropShadow>]
  • [<feFlood>]
  • [<feGaussianBlur>]
  • [<feImage>]
  • [<feMerge>]
  • [<feMorphology>]
  • [<feOffset>]
  • [<feSpecularLighting>]
  • [<feTile>]
  • [<feTurbulence>]

Just like with CSS filters, we can use them on their own or include multiple filter primitives in the <filter> tag for more interesting effects. If more than one filter primitive is used, then each operation will build on top of the previous one.

For our purposes we’re just going to use feColorMatrix, but if you want to know more about SVG filters, you can check out the specs on MDN or this (in progress, at the time of this writing) article series that Sara Soueidan has kicked off.

feColourMatrix allows us to change color values on a per-channel basis, much like channel mixing in Photoshop.

This is what the syntax looks like:

<svg xmlns="<http://www.w3.org/2000/svg>" version="1.1">   <defs>     <filter id="id-of-your-filter">       <feColorMatrix         color-interpolation-filters="sRGB"         type="matrix"         values="1 0 0 0 0                 0 1 0 0 0                 0 0 1 0 0                 0 0 0 1 0 "/>     </filter>     ...   </defs> </svg>

Let’s have a closer look at the color matrix values.

The first four columns represent the red, green and blue channels of color and the alpha (opacity) value. The rows contain the red, green, blue and alpha values in those channels.

The M column is a multiplier — we don’t need to change any of these values for our purposes here. The values for each color channel are represented as floating point numbers in the range 0 to 1.

We could write these values as a CSS RGBA color declaration like this:

rgba(255, 255, 255, 1)

The values for each color channel (red, green and blue) are stored as integers in the range 0 to 255. In computers, this is the range that one 8-bit byte can offer.

By dividing these color channel values by 255, the values can be represented as a floating point number which we can use in the feColorMatrix.

And, by doing this, we can create a color filter for any color with an RGB value!

Like teal, for example:

rgba(0, 128, 128, 1). 128%255=0.50

See the Pen
SVG filter – teal hover
by Cassie Evans (@cassie-codes)
on CodePen.

This SVG filter will only impart color to icons with a white fill, so If we have an icon with a black fill, we can use invert() to convert it to white before applying the SVG filter.

.icon:hover {   filter: invert(100%) url('assets/your-SVG.svg#id-of-your-filter'); }

If we just have a hex code, the math is a little trickier, although there are plenty of hex-to-RGBA converters out there. To help out, I’ve made a HEX to feColorMatrix converter.

See the Pen
HEX to feColorMatrix converterr
by Cassie Evans (@cassie-codes)
on CodePen.

Have a play around, and happy filtering!

The post The Many Ways to Change an SVG Fill on Hover (and When to Use Them) appeared first on CSS-Tricks.

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5 Awesome Tips to Create Stunning Business Cards

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Multiple Background Clip

You know how you can have multiple backgrounds?

body {   background-image:      url(image-one.jpg),     url(image-two.jpg); }

That’s just background-image. You can set their position too, as you might expect. We’ll shorthand it:

body {   background:      url(image-one.jpg) no-repeat top right,     url(image-two.jpg) no-repeat bottom left; }

I snuck background-repeat in there just for fun. Another one you might not think of setting for multiple different backgrounds, though, is background-clip. In this linked article, Stefan Judis notes that this unlocks some pretty legit CSS-Trickery!

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The Importance of One-on-Ones

What do we mean by 1:1 (pronounced one-on-one)? This is typically a private conversation between an Engineering Manager/Lead and their Employee. I personally have been a Lead, a Manager, and also an Independent Contributor/Software Engineer, so I’ve sat at each side of the table. I’ve both had great experiences on each side and have made mistakes on each side. That said, I’m going to cover some meditations on the subject because 1:1s open opportunities for personal and professional growth when they’re effective.

What I’ve noticed about Software Engineering as a discipline, in particular, is that it has many people sharing posts about technical implementations and very few about engineering management. Management can influence and impact our ability to code efficiently and hone our craft, so it’s worth exploring publicly.

My thoughts on this change a lot and, like all humans, I’m always learning, so please don’t take any of these opinions as gospel. Think of them more like a dialogue where we can bounce ideas off one another.

Establishing baseline rules

I believe that 1:1s are crucial and should not be the kind of meeting anyone takes lightly, whether on the management or employee side. The meetings should have a regular cadence, scheduled either once a week or biweekly and only cancelled for pressing circumstances — and if they have to be cancelled, it’s a good practice to let the other person know why rather than simply removing it from the calendar.

It might be tempting to think remote working means fewer 1:1s, but it’s quite the opposite. Since each person is in a different space on a day-to-day basis, 1:1s help make up for sporadic contact by meeting regularly.

1:1s should be conducted in a space with the smallest amount of distractions possible. If you are in a room with one other person, shut off your computer and use a notepad so you won’t get notifications. If doing a 1:1 remotely, make sure you’re in a quiet place and that it has stable internet bandwidth. And, please, avoid taking 1:1s in a car or while running errands. It’s also worth trying to limit the time you spend in noisy environments, like cafes. Another tip: if you have to be outside, wear headphones. Again, this is all for the benefit of limiting distractions so that everyone’s focus is on the meeting itself.

Honestly, I would rather someone cancel on me or push the meeting off until they’re in a quiet place than take a call swarming with distractions. Nothing says, “I don’t value your time,” like multitasking during a 1:1 meeting. The whole purpose of the 1:1 should be to make the other person feel valuable and connected.

meeting between two people
📷 Credit: @rawpixel on Unsplash

So, why should we devote time to 1:1s anyway?

1:1s are crucial. If we constantly work on tasks without taking the time to step back and check in with our work, we risk being tactical rather than strategic. We risk working in a silo, which can lead to burnout and anxiety. We risk opportunities to spot errors early and reduce technical debt. At their root, 1:1s should reduce uncertainty by making us feel more connected to the rest of the team while clarifying intent.

For example, on the employee side, you might not be sure whether to invest your time in Task A or Task B and the progress of your commits slows down as a result. Which one is higher priority? On the manager side, you might not be sure what’s happening — the employee could be stuck on a problem. They could be burnt out, but it’s tough to be sure. It’s totally normal for someone to get stuck once in a while, but it’s common to not want to announce it in front of others, perhaps out of fear of embarrassment, among other things. A 1:1 is a good, safe, private place to explore concerns before they become tangible problems because they offer privacy that some open floor plans simply do not.

This privacy part is important. Candid exploration of high level topics, like career goals, or even low level topics, like code reviews, are best done and that is easier to do with one person in a private space rather than a full audience out in the open. At their best, 1:1s should create a good environment to resolve some of these issues.

Employees and managers alike should be fully invested in the meeting. This means using active body language that shows attention. This means emphasizing listening and speaking in turn without interrupting the other person.

Connection

Belonging is a core tenant of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs because, as humans, we’re designed for connectedness and kinship. I know this article is about engineering management, but engineers are no less in need of empathy and human connection than any other person in any other profession.

The reason I include this at all is because connecting with others on a personal level is something I really need to work on myself. I’m awkward. I’m an introvert. I don’t always know how to talk to people. But I do know that there have been plenty of 1:1s where I either felt heard or that I was hearing someone else. In other words, I felt in connected to the other person, be it through shared goals, personal similarities, or even common gripes about something.

A friend of mine mentioned that “people leave managers, not jobs.” This is, for the most part, so true! Simply taking the time to develop a connection where a manager and employee both know each other better creates a higher level of comfort that can go a long way towards many benefits, including employee retention.

It might be worth asking the other person what modality works best if you’re remote. Some people prefer video chats; some people prefer phone calls. That’s all part of fostering a better connection.

1:1s are more for employees than managers

Don’t let that headline give you pause. Yes, these meetings are for both parties. They really are. But here’s the thing: in the balance of power, the manager can always speak directly to the employee. The inverse isn’t always true. There are also dynamics between teammates. That means the manager’s job in a 1:1 is to provide a space for the employee to speak clearly and freely about concerns, particularly ones that might impact their performance.

Ideally, a manager will listen more than an employee, but a back and forth dialogue can be healthy, too. A 1:1 where a manager is speaking the most is probably the least productive. This isn’t team time; it’s time to give an employee the floor because it otherwise might not happen in other venues.

In my experience, it’s best if a manager first learns the an employee’s Ultimate Goals™. Where do they see themselves in five years? What kind of work they like to do most? What environments do they work in best and which ones are the most difficult? A manager can’t always facilitate the ideal situation, but having this information is still extremely valuable for cultivating a person’s career trajectory, for the work that needs to be done, and for a general understanding of what will keep people working well together.

Let’s say you have two employees: one wants to be a Principal Architect someday and another who tells you that they love refactoring. That actually gives you pretty good insight for a project that requires one person to drive direction and another to clean up the legacy code in preparation for the refactor!

Or, say you have an employee that wants to be Director someday but rarely helps others. You also concurrently get an intern. This is your chance to develop one’s mentoring skills and scale the other’s engineering skills.

When these meetings are focused on the employee instead of the manager, they help the employee feel heard and motivated, which can bolster their career and also give the manager the ability to make bigger decisions about how everyone works together to accomplish their individual and collective goals.

meeting between two people
📷 Credit: @rawpixel on Unsplash

Yes, agendas are required

Yes, even though 1:1s have a tendency to be informal because everyone already knows each other well, they’re way more successful when there’s an agenda, at least in my opinion. And no, it’s not important for the agendas to be super formal either. They could be a couple bullet points on a sheet of paper. Or even items added to a private Slack channel. What’s most important is that both parties come prepared to talk.

If both the manager and the employee have agendas, my preference is to either defer priority to the employee, or compare lists up front to prioritize items. It might be that the manager has to discuss something pressing and sensitive, like a team reorg that affects the employee’s agenda. Regardless, communication is key. In a best-case scenario, you’re both in lock step and that all agenda items actually overlap.

Employees: Sometimes weeks are tough and it’s easy to get frustrated. Taking time to write an agenda keeps the meeting from being all, “I hate everything and how could you have done me so wrong,” and more focused on actionable items. Why not just vent? Sure, there’s a time and place for venting, but the problem with it is that your manager is a person, and might not know exactly how to help you on an emotional level. Having specific topics and items make it facilitate more actionable feedback for your manager, and therefore, make them better able to support you.

Managers: Let’s face it, you’re probably juggling a million plates. (That metaphor might be wrong, but you catch my drift.) There’s a lot on your mind and most of it is confidential. Agenda give you the context you need to prevent wandering into topics you might not be at liberty to discuss. It also keeps things on track. Are there four more things you need to cover and you’re already 15 minutes into a 30-minute meeting? You’re less likely to pontificate about your early career or foray into irrelevant paths and stay focused on the task and human right in front of you.

Direction and Guidance

One thing that a 1:1 can be useful for is guidance. On a few occasions, I’ve checked in with an employee who’s communicated feeling like they’re in over their heads — whether they’ve overcommitted or have such a tall task in front of them, they’re not sure how to proceed and feel anxious to the point of paralysis.

As mentioned before, this is a great opportunity for a manager to reduce uncertainty. Some ways to do that:

  • Prioritize. If there’s too much work, spend time talking through the most important pieces, and even perhaps offer yourself as a shield from some of the work.
  • Make action items. Sometimes a task is too large and the employee needs help breaking it down into organized pieces making it easier to know where to start and how to move forward.
  • Clarify vision. People might feel overwhelmed because they don’t know why they’re doing something. If you can communicate the necessity of the work at hand, then it can align them with the goal of the project and make the work more rewarding and valuable.

One risk here is passive listening. For example, there’s a fine line between knowing when to let an employee vent and when that venting needs actionable solutions. Or both! I have no hard rules about when one is needed over the other, and I sometimes get this wrong myself. This is why eye contact and active listening is important. You’ll receive subtle cues from the person that help reveal what is needed in the situation.

If you’re an employee and your manager isn’t providing the listening mode you need from them, I think it’s OK to gently mention that. Your manager isn’t a mind reader, and in many cases, they haven’t even received management training to develop proper listening skills. It’s perfectly fine to say something along the lines of, “It would be really great if you could sit with me and help me prioritize all these tasks on my to do list,” or “I really need to vent right now, but some of the venting is stuff I think is valuable for you to know about.” Personally, I love it when someone tells me what they need. I’m usually trying to figure that out, so it takes out the guesswork.

Meeting adjourned…

You spend many waking hours at work. It’s important that your working relationships — particularly between manager and employee — are healthy and that you’re intentionally checking in with purpose, both in the short-term and the long-term.

1:1s may appear to be time hogs on the calendar, but over the long haul, you’ll find they save valuable time. As a manager, having a team of employees who feel valued, aligned and connected is about the best thing you can ask for. So, value them because you’ll get solid value in return.

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Designing for the web ought to mean making HTML and CSS

David Heinemeier Hansson has written an interesting post about the current state of web design and how designers ought to be able to still work on the code side of things:

We build using server-side rendering, Turbolinks, and Stimulus. All tools that are approachable and realistic for designers to adopt, since the major focus is just on HTML and CSS, with a few sprinkles of JavaScript for interactivity.

And it’s not like it’s some well kept secret! In fact, every single framework we’ve created at Basecamp that allows designers to work this way has been open sourced. The calamity of complexity that the current industry direction on JavaScript is unleashing upon designers is of human choice and design. It’s possible to make different choices and arrive at different designs.

I like this sentiment a whole lot — not every company needs to build their websites the same way. However, I don’t think that the approach that Basecamp has taken would scale to the size of a much larger organization. David continues:

Also not interested in retreating into the idea that you need a whole team of narrow specialists to make anything work. That “full-stack” is somehow a point of derision rather than self-sufficiency. That designers are so overburdened with conceptual demands on their creativity that they shouldn’t be bordered or encouraged to learn how to express those in the native materials of the web. Nope. No thanks!

Designing for the modern web in a way that pleases users with great, fast designs needn’t be this maze of impenetrable complexity. We’re making it that! It’s possible not to.

Again, I totally agree with David’s sentiment as I don’t think there’s anyone in the field who really wants to make the tools we use to build websites overly complicated; but in this instance, I tend to agree with what Nicolas recently had to say on this matter:

The interesting thing to note here is that the act of front-end development changes based on the size and scale of the organization. As with all arguments in front-end development, there is no “right” way! Our work has to adapt to the problems that we’re trying to solve. Is a large, complex React front-end useful for Basecamp? Maybe not. But for some organizations, like mine at Gusto, we have to specialize in certain areas because the product that we’re working on is so complicated.

I guess what I also might be rambling about is that I don’t think it’s engineers that are making front-end development complicated — perhaps it’s the expectations of our users.

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Slide an Image to Reveal Text with CSS Animations

I want to take a closer look at the CSS animation property and walk through an effect that I used on my own portfolio website: making text appear from behind a moving object. Here’s an isolated example if you’d like to see the final product.

Here’s what we’re going to work with:

See the Pen
Revealing Text Animation Part 4 – Responsive
by Jesper Ekstrom (@jesper-ekstrom)
on CodePen.

Even if you’re not all that interested in the effect itself, this will be an excellent exercise to expand your CSS knowledge and begin creating unique animations of your own. In my case, digging deep into animation helped me grow more confident in my CSS abilities and increased my creativity, which got me more interested in front-end development as a whole.

Ready? Set. Let’s go!

Step 1: Markup the main elements

Before we start with the animations, let’s create a parent container that covers the full viewport. Inside it, we’re adding the text and the image, each in a separate div so it’s easier to customize them later on. The HMTL markup will look like this:

<!-- The parent container --> <div class="container">    <!-- The div containing the image -->   <div class="image-container">   <img src="https://jesperekstrom.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/Wordpress-folder-purple.png" alt="wordpress-folder-icon">   </div>   <!-- The div containing the text that's revealed -->   <div class="text-container">     <h1>Animation</h1>   </div> </div>

We are going to use this trusty transform trick to make the divs center both vertically and horizontally with a position: absolute; inside our parent container, and since we want the image to display in front of the text, we’re adding a higher z-index value to it.

/* The parent container taking up the full viewport */ .container {   width: 100%;   height: 100vh;   display: block;   position: relative;   overflow: hidden; }  /* The div that contains the image  */ /* Centering trick: https://css-tricks.com/centering-percentage-widthheight-elements/ */ .image-container {   position: absolute;   top: 50%;   left: 50%;   transform: translate(-50%,-50%);   z-index: 2; /* Makes sure this is on top */ }  /* The image inside the first div */ .image-container img {   -webkit-filter: drop-shadow(-4px 5px 5px rgba(0,0,0,0.6));   filter: drop-shadow(-4px 5px 5px rgba(0,0,0,0.6));   height: 200px; }  /* The div that holds the text that will be revealed */ /* Same centering trick */ .text-container {   position: absolute;   top: 50%;   left: 50%;   transform: translate(-50%,-50%);   z-index: 1; /* Places this below the image container */   margin-left: -100px; }

We’re leaving vendor prefixes out the code examples throughout this post, but they should definitely be considered if using this in production environment.

Here’s what that gives us so far, which is basically our two elements stacked one on top of the other.

See the Pen
Revealing Text Animation Part 1 – Mail Elements
by Jesper Ekstrom (@jesper-ekstrom)
on CodePen.

Step 2: Hide the text behind a block

To make our text start displaying from left to right, we need to add another div inside our .text-container:

<!-- ... -->    <!-- The div containing the text that's revealed -->   <div class="text-container">     <h1>Animation</h1>     <div class="fading-effect"></div>   </div>    <!-- ... -->

…and add these CSS properties and values to it:

.fading-effect {   position: absolute;   top: 0;   bottom: 0;   right: 0;   width: 100%;   background: white; }

As you can see, the text is hiding behind this block now, which has a white background color to blend in with our parent container.

If we try changing the width of the block, the text starts to appear. Go ahead and try playing with it in the Pen:

See the Pen
Revealing Text Animation Part 2 – Hiding Block
by Jesper Ekstrom (@jesper-ekstrom)
on CodePen.

There is another way of making this effect without adding an extra block with a background over it. I will cover that method later in the article. 🙂

Step 3: Define the animation keyframes

We are now ready for the fun stuff! To start animating our objects, we’re going to make use of the animation property and its @keyframes function. Let’s start by creating two different @keyframes, one for the image and one for the text, which will end up looking like this:

/* Slides the image from left (-250px) to right (150px) */ @keyframes image-slide {   0% { transform: translateX(-250px) scale(0); }   60% { transform: translateX(-250px) scale(1); }   90% { transform: translateX(150px) scale(1); }   100% { transform: translateX(150px) scale(1); }   }  /* Slides the text by shrinking the width of the object from full (100%) to nada (0%) */ @keyframes text-slide {   0% { width: 100%; }   60% { width: 100%; }   75%{ width: 0; }   100% { width: 0; } }

I prefer to add all @keyframes on the top of my CSS file for a better file structure, but it’s just a preference.

The reason why the @keyframes only use a small portion of their percent value (mostly from 60-100%) is that I have chosen to animate both objects over the same duration instead of adding an animation-delay to the class it’s applied to. That’s just my preference. If you choose to do the same, keep in mind to always have a value set for 0% and 100%; otherwise the animation can start looping backward or other weird interactions will pop up.

To enable the @keyframes to our classes, we’ll call the animation name on the CSS property animation. So, for example, adding the image-slide animation to the image element, we’d do this:

.image-container img {   /* [animation name] [animation duration] [animation transition function] */   animation: image-slide 4s cubic-bezier(.5,.5,0,1); }

The name of the @keyframes works the same as creating a class. In other words the name doesn’t really matter as long as it’s called the same on the element where it’s applied.

If that cubic-bezier part causes head scratching, then check out this post by Michelle Barker. She covers the topic in depth. For the purposes of this demo, though, it’s suffice to say that it is a way to create a custom animation curve for how the object moves from start to finish. The site cubic-bezier.com is a great place to generate those values without all the guesswork.

We talked a bit about wanting to avoid a looping animation. We can force the object to stay put once the animation reaches 100% with the animation-fill-mode sub-property:

.image-container img {   animation: image-slide 4s cubic-bezier(.5,.5,0,1);   animation-fill-mode: forwards; }

So far, so good!

See the Pen
Revealing Text Animation Part 3 – @keyframes
by Jesper Ekstrom (@jesper-ekstrom)
on CodePen.

Step 4: Code for responsiveness

Since the animations are based on fixed (pixels) sizing, playing the viewport width will cause the elements to shift out of place, which is a bad thing when we’re trying to hide and reveal elements based on their location. We could create multiple animations on different media queries to handle it (that’s what I did at first), but it’s no fun managing several animations at once. Instead, we can use the same animation and change its properties at specific breakpoints.

For example:

@keyframes image-slide {   0% { transform: translatex(-250px) scale(0); }   60% { transform: translatex(-250px) scale(1); }   90% { transform: translatex(150px) scale(1); }   100% { transform: translatex(150px) scale(1); } }  /* Changes animation values for viewports up to 1000px wide */ @media screen and (max-width: 1000px) {   @keyframes image-slide {     0% { transform: translatex(-150px) scale(0); }     60% { transform: translatex(-150px) scale(1); }     90% { transform: translatex(120px) scale(1); }     100% { transform: translatex(120px) scale(1); }   } }

Here we are, all responsive!

See the Pen
Revealing Text Animation Part 4 – Responsive
by Jesper Ekstrom (@jesper-ekstrom)
on CodePen.

Alternative method: Text animation without colored background

I promised earlier that I’d show a different method for the fade effect, so let’s touch on that.

Instead of using creating a whole new div — <div class="fading-effect"> — we can use a little color trickery to clip the text and blend it into the background:

.text-container {   background: black;   -webkit-background-clip: text;   -webkit-text-fill-color: transparent; }

This makes the text transparent which allows the background color behind it to bleed in and effectively hide it. And, since this is a background, we can change the background width and see how the text gets cut by the width it’s given. This also makes it possible to add linear gradient colors to the text or even a background image display inside it.

The reason I didn’t go this route in the demo is because it isn’t compatible with Internet Explorer (note those -webkit vendor prefixes). The method we covered in the actual demo makes it possible to switch out the text for another image or any other object.


Pretty neat little animation, right? It’s relatively subtle and acts as a nice enhancement to UI elements. For example, I could see it used to reveal explanatory text or even photo captions. Or, a little JavaScript could be used to fire the animation on click or scroll position to make things a little more interactive.

Have questions about how any of it works? See something that could make it better? Let me know in the comments!

The post Slide an Image to Reveal Text with CSS Animations appeared first on CSS-Tricks.

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7 things every design student should know to succeed

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Table design patterns on the web

Chen Hui Jing has tackled a ton of design patterns for tables that might come in handy when creating tables that are easy to read and responsive for the web:

There are a myriad of table design patterns out there, and which approach you pick depends heavily on the type of data you have and the target audience for that data. At the end of the day, tables are a method for the organisation and presentation of data. It is important to figure out which information matters most to your users and decide on an approach that best serves their needs.

This reminds me of way back when Chris wrote about responsive data tables and just how tricky they are to get right. Also there’s a great post by Richard Rutter in a similar vein where he writes about the legibility of tables and fine typography:

Many tables, such as financial statements or timetables, are made up mostly of numbers. Generally speaking, their purpose is to provide the reader with numeric data, presented in either columns or rows, and sometimes in a matrix of the two. Your reader may use the table by scanning down the columns, either searching for a data point or by making comparisons between numbers. Your reader may also make sense of the data by simply glancing at the column or row. It is far easier to compare numbers if the ones, tens and hundreds are all lined up vertically; that is, all the digits should occupy exactly the same width.

One of my favorite table patterns that I now use consistently is one with a sticky header. Like this demo here:

See the Pen
Table Sticky Header
by Robin Rendle (@robinrendle)
on CodePen.

As a user myself, I find that when I’m scrolling through large tables of data with complex information, I tend to forget what one column is all about and then I’ll have to scroll all the way back up to the top again to read the column header.

Anyway, all this makes me think that I would read a whole dang book on the subject of the <table> element and how to design data accurately and responsively.

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The Slow and Steady Refactor

Over the past week or so, I’ve been reading Refactoring by Martin Fowler and it’s all about how to make sweeping changes to a large codebase in a way that doesn’t cause everything to break. I bring this up because there’s a lot of really good notes in this book that have challenged my recent approach to auditing and refactoring a ton of CSS. A lot of the advice is small, kinda obvious stuff, but I realized that I’ve recently been lazy when it comes to how many of those small, obvious things I brush off on projects like this.

Martin writes:

…if I can’t immediately see and fix the problem, I’ll revert to my last good commit and redo what I just did with smaller steps. That works because I commit so frequently and because small steps are the key to moving quickly, particularly when working with difficult code.

So: commit frequently and only do one thing in that commit. Further, constantly test those changes as you code.

The other thing I’ve started to be more aware of — thanks to this book — is that commit messages are precious things because they help other folks understand the meaning of changed work. We’ve all seen seemingly simple commit messages, like “refactored typography” that turn out to be thousands of lines long and we roll our eyes. That’s just asking for bugs to be introduced and visual regressions to happen. Smaller commits should prevent that sort of thing from ever happening. A good string of commit messages should sort of feel like you’re pairing with someone, as if you’re walking them through the changes step-by-step.

Although I’m getting better at this, I find this method of working extraordinarily difficult because it feels slower than sweeping changes and hoping for the best. In his book, Martin encourages us to subside that feeling. When we’re refactoring large portions of our codebase, he argues, we should always be slow and steady, patient and disciplined.

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