The Difference Between Explicit and Implicit Grids

Grid Layout finally gives us the ability to define grids in CSS and place items into grid cells. This on its own is great, but the fact that we don’t have to specify each track and we don’t have to place every item manually makes the new module even better. Grids are flexible enough to adapt to their items.

This is all handled by the so called explicit and implicit grid.

All code samples in this post are accompanied by images in order to display grid lines and tracks. If you want to tinker with the code yourself, I recommend you download Firefox Nightly because it currently has the best DevTools to debug grids.

Explicit Grids

We can define a fixed number of lines and tracks that form a grid by using the properties grid-template-rows, grid-template-columns, and grid-template-areas. This manually defined grid is called the explicit grid.

An explicit grid with 4 vertical tracks (columns) and 2 horizontal tracks (rows). (View Pen)
.grid {   display: grid;   grid-template-columns: 1fr 1fr 1fr 1fr;   grid-template-rows: 100px 100px;   grid-gap: 20px; }

Repeating tracks

When we define grid-template-columns: 1fr 1fr 1fr 1fr; we get four vertical tracks each with a width of 1fr. We can automate that by using the repeat() notation like so grid-template-columns: repeat(4, 1fr);. The first argument specifies the number of repetitions, the second a track list, which is repeated that number of times.

A track list? Yes, you can actually repeat multiple tracks.

See the Pen CSS Grid Layout: Repeating track lists by Manuel Matuzovic (@matuzo) on CodePen.

Automatic repetition of tracks

An explicit grid with 4 vertical tracks each 100px wide, generated by the repeat notation. (View Pen)

The repeat notation is quite useful, but it can be automated even further. Instead of setting a fixed number of repetitions we can use the auto-fill and auto-fit keywords.

Auto-filling tracks

The auto-fill keyword creates as many tracks as fit into the grid container without causing the grid to overflow it.

Repetition of as many vertical tracks with a width of 100px as fit into the grid container. (View Pen)
.grid {   display: grid;   grid-template-columns: repeat(auto-fill, 100px);   grid-gap: 20px; }

Note that repeat(auto-fill, 1fr); will only create one track because a single track with a width of 1fr already fills the whole grid container.

Auto-fitting tracks

The auto-fit keyword behaves the same way as auto-fill, except that after grid item placement it will only create as many tracks as needed and any empty repeated track collapses.

.grid {   display: grid;   grid-template-columns: repeat(auto-fit, 100px);   grid-gap: 20px; }

In the example used in this section the grid will look the same with repeat(auto-fit, 100px); and repeat(4, 100px);. The difference is visible when there are more than 4 grid items.

If there are more items, auto-fit creates more columns.

The repeat notation with the auto-fit keyword creates as many tracks as needed and as many as fit into the grid container. (View Pen)

On the other hand, if a fixed number of vertical tracks is used in the repeat notation and the number of items exceeds this value more rows are added. You can read more about that in the next section: implicit grids.

If there are more items than vertical tracks, more rows are added. (View Pen)

I’ve used grid-template-columns in the above examples out of convenience, but all rules also apply to grid-template-rows.

.grid {   display: grid;   grid-template-columns: repeat(auto-fill, 100px);   grid-template-rows: repeat(auto-fill, 100px);   grid-gap: 20px;   height: 100%; }  html, body {   height: 100%; }
The repeat notation with the auto-fill keyword on both axes. (View Pen)

Implicit Grids

If there are more grid items than cells in the grid or when a grid item is placed outside of the explicit grid, the grid container automatically generates grid tracks by adding grid lines to the grid. The explicit grid together with these additional implicit tracks and lines forms the so called implicit grid.

Two items placed outside of the explicit grid causing the creation of implicit lines and tracks (View Pen)
.item:first-child {   grid-column-start: -1; }  .item:nth-child(2) {   grid-row-start: 4; }

The widths and heights of the implicit tracks are set automatically. They are only big enough to fit the placed grid items, but it’s possible to change this default behavior.

Sizing implicit tracks

The grid-auto-rows and grid-auto-columns properties give us control over the size of implicit tracks.

.grid {   display: grid;   grid-template-columns: repeat(4, 1fr);   grid-template-rows: 100px 100px;   grid-gap: 20px;   grid-auto-columns: 200px;   grid-auto-rows: 60px; }

Implicit tracks will now always have a width of 200px and a height of 60px, no matter if the grid item fits or not.

Fixed widths and heights for implicit tracks (View in CodePen)

You can make sized implicit tracks more flexible by specifying a range using the minmax() notation.

.grid {   grid-auto-columns: minmax(200px, auto);   grid-auto-rows: minmax(60px, auto); }

Implicit tracks are now at least 200px wide and 60px high, but will expand if the content demands it.

Extending the grid to the start

Implicit tracks may not just be added to the end of the explicit grid. It may also happen that the explicit grid needs to be extended to the start.

An implicit grid extended by one row and one column to the start (View Pen)
.item:first-child {   grid-row-end: 2;   grid-row-start: span 2; }  .item:nth-child(2) {   grid-column-end: 2;   grid-column-start: span 2; }

Each item ends on the second line and spans 2 cells (one vertically, the other horizontally). Since there is only one cell before the second line respectively another implicit track is added to the grid at the start of each side.

Automatic Placement

As already mentioned, implicit tracks are also added if the number of items exceeds the number of cells. By default, the auto-placement algorithm places items by filling each row consecutively, adding new rows as necessary. We can specify how auto-placed items get flowed into the grid by using the grid-auto-flow property.

Instead of rows, new columns are added if the number of items exceeds the number of cells (View in CodePen)
.grid {   display: grid;   grid-template-columns: repeat(4, 1fr);   grid-template-rows: 100px 100px;   grid-gap: 20px;   grid-auto-flow: column; }

Instead of rows, columns are being filled with items and additional implicit columns are created.

Not defining an explicit grid

Due to the fact that it’s possible to automatically size cells using grid-auto-rows and grid-auto-columns it’s not obligatory to define an explicit grid.

An implicit grid without explicit lines and tracks (View in CodePen)
.grid {   display: grid;   grid-auto-columns: minmax(60px, 200px);   grid-auto-rows: 60px;   grid-gap: 20px; }  .item:first-child {   grid-row: span 2; }  .item:nth-child(2) {   grid-column: 1 / span 2; }  .item:nth-child(5) {   grid-column: 3; }

Relying solely on the implicit grid can get confusing and difficult to understand in combination with explicit placement. In this example the first item is placed auto and spans 2 rows, the second item is placed explicitly in the first column and spans 2 columns creating a second vertical track. The third and fourth item would actually both be placed automatically in the fourth row, but the fifth item is placed explicitly in the previously non-existent third column. This creates a third vertical track and due to Grids auto-placement, the third item moves up a row to fill the space.

Conclusion

This article doesn’t cover everything there is to know about the explicit and implicit grid, but it should give you more than a solid understanding of the concept. Knowing why and how implicit lines and tracks a created is vital for working with Grid Layout.

You can find all the examples used in this article in a Collection on CodePen.

If you want to learn more about Grids check out The Complete Guide to Grid, Getting Started with CSS Grid, Grid By Example and A Collection of Interesting Facts about CSS Grid Layout.


The Difference Between Explicit and Implicit Grids is a post from CSS-Tricks

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